The gulag Archipelago. New York, ny: Harper Perennial. Archived from the original on Retrieved "Wannsee conference and the "Final Solution". "The game of the name" (PDF). bell, vicars Walker (1953). On learning the English Tongue. The honest jakes or Privy has graduated via offices to the final horror of toilet.
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The metaphor and the solutions euphemism is designed to dull the moral sensibility. "Transcript of interview with cia director Panetta". Enhanced interrogation has always been a kind of handy euphemism (for torture) Pickering, Thomas (April 2013). "America must Atone for the torture It Inflicted". "Obscene, indecent and Profane Broadcasts". Archived from the original. m/dictionary/english/berk collins Dictionary, definition of "berk burk retrieved McCool,. "Return of Rongelapese to their Home Island — note by the secretary" (PDF). United States Atomic Energy commission. Archived from the original (PDF).
Janell Anderson; Harry Glynn Custred. The Ups and Downs of Affirmative action Preferences. Chapter 4: Affirmative action diversity: a euphemism for Preferences,"s, and Set-asides a journalist's guide to live direct and Unbiased News Translation. In modern times, various social and political movements have introduced euphemisms, from affirmative action to political correctness to international conflicts, which are linguistically and culturally driven. Enhanced interrogation and as euphemism david Brooks (December 12, 2014). "Shields and Brooks on the cia interrogation report, spending bill sticking point". Cuts through the ocean of euphemism, the eits, enhanced interrogation techniques, and all that. It gets to straight language. Torture — it's obviously torture.
affirmative action as euphemism "Style guide". Uglier even than human-rights abuses and more obscure even than comfort station, affirmative action is a euphemism with little to be said for. Custred, Glynn campbell, tom. "Affirmative action: a euphemism for Racial Profiling by government". Bayan, rick (December 2009). Will (April 25, 2014). "The supreme court tangles over euphemisms for affirmative action". Retrieved may 26, 2015.
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Fox, the replacement of swear words by the word cuss became a humorous motif throughout the film. In Tom Hanks 's web series Electric City, the use of profanity has been censored by the word expletive. " Expletive deleted " entered public discourse after its notorious use in censoring transcripts of the watergate tapes. In Isaac Asimov 's foundation series, the curses of the scientist Ebling Mis have all been replaced with the word unprintable. In fact, there is only one case of his curses being referred to as homework such, leading some readers to mistakenly assume that the euphemism is Ebling's, rather than Asimov's. The same word has also been used in his short story " Flies ". George carlin has stated in audio books and his stand-up shows that euphemisms soften everyday language and take the life out.
20 see also edit references edit "Euphemism". Retrieved φήμη, henry george liddell, robert Scott, a greek-english Lexicon, on Perseus " Euphemism" Etymology". Retrieved timothy ryback (november 15, 1993). "Evidence of evil - the new Yorker". Retrieved December 1, plan 2015.
16 For instance, toilet is an 18th-century euphemism, replacing the older euphemism house-of-office, which in turn replaced the even older euphemisms privy-house and bog-house. 17 In the 20th century, where the words lavatory or toilet were deemed inappropriate (e.g. In the United States they were sometimes replaced with bathroom or water closet, which in turn became restroom,. The word shit appears to have originally been a euphemism for defecation in Pre-germanic, as the Proto-Indo-european root * sḱeyd-, from which it was derived, meant "to cut off". 18 Euphemisms are at risk of being understood and used literally by young children who are acquiring language, and by older people who are learning a foreign language; an example is the "pregnant fireman " type of children's solecism. 19 In popular culture edit doublespeak is a term sometimes used for deliberate euphemistic misuse of words to distort or reverse their meaning, as in a "Ministry of peace" which wages war, and a "Ministry of love" which imprisons and tortures.
It is a portmanteau of the terms Newspeak and doublethink, which originate from george Orwell 's novel Nineteen Eighty-four. The word euphemism itself can be used as a euphemism. In the animated tv special Halloween Is Grinch Night (see. Seuss a child asks to go to the euphemism, where euphemism is being used as a euphemism for outhouse. This euphemistic use of euphemism also occurred in the play who's Afraid of Virginia woolf? Where a character requests, "Martha, will you show her where we keep the, uh, euphemism?" In Wes Anderson's film Fantastic.
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9 Some examples of rhyming slang may serve the front same purpose: to call a person a berk sounds less offensive than to call a person a cunt, though berk is short for Berkeley hunt, which rhymes with cunt. 10 Bureaucracies frequently spawn euphemisms intentionally, as doublespeak expressions. For example, in the past, the us military used the term " sunshine units " for contamination by radioactive isotopes. 11 An effective death sentence in the soviet Union during the Great Purge often used the clause "imprisonment without right to correspondence the person sentenced never had a chance to correspond with anyone because soon after imprisonment they would be shot. 12 As early as 1939, nazi official reinhard heydrich used the term Sonderbehandlung special treatment to mean summary execution (most likely by hanging) of persons viewed as "disciplinary problems" by the nazis even before commencing the systematic extermination of the jews. Heinrich Himmler, aware that the word had come to be known to mean murder, replaced that euphemism with one in which Jews would be "guided" (to their deaths) through the slave-labor and extermination camps 13 after having been "evacuated" to their doom. Such was part of the formulation of Endlösung offer der Judenfrage (the "Final Solution to the jewish question which became infamous to the entire world during the nuremberg Trials. 14 a euphemism may itself devolve into a taboo word, through the linguistic process known as semantic change (specifically pejoration) described. Quine, 15 and more recently dubbed the "euphemism treadmill" by harvard professor Steven Pinker.
Words from a foreign language edit Expressions or words from a foreign language may be imported for use as a replacement for an offensive word. For example, the French word enceinte was sometimes used instead of the English word pregnant. 8 This practice of word substitution became so frequent that the expression " essay pardon my French " was adopted in attempts to excuse the use of profanity. Evolution edit euphemisms may be formed in a number of ways. Periphrasis, or circumlocution, is one of the most common: to "speak around" a given word, implying it without saying. Over time, circumlocutions become recognized as established euphemisms for particular words or ideas. To alter the pronunciation or spelling of a taboo word (such as a swear word ) to form a euphemism is known as taboo deformation, or a minced oath. In American English, words that are unacceptable on television, such as fuck, may be represented by deformations such as freak, even in children's cartoons.
b-word bitch etc. Also, the letter can be phonetically respelled. For example, the word piss was shortened to pee (pronounced as the letter P ) in this way. Figures of speech edit Ambiguous statements ( it for excrement, the situation or a girl in trouble for pregnancy, passing away or passed for death, do it or come together in reference to a sexual act, tired and emotional for drunkenness) Understatements ( asleep for. Slang edit see also: Slang The use of a term with a softer connotation, though it shares the same meaning. For instance, screwed up is a euphemism for fucked up ; hook-up and laid are euphemisms for sexual intercourse. There is some disagreement over whether certain terms are or are not euphemisms. For example, sometimes the phrase visually impaired is labeled as a politically correct euphemism for blind or a blind person. However, visual impairment can be a broader term, including, for example, people who have partial sight in one eye, those with uncorrectable mild to moderate poor vision, or even those who wear glasses, groups that would be excluded by the word blind.
Euphemisms are also used to downplay the hibernation gravity of large-scale injustices, war crimes, or other events that warrant a pattern of avoidance in official statements or documents. For instance, one reason for the comparative scarcity of written evidence documenting the exterminations. Auschwitz (at least given the scale) is "directives for the extermination process obscured in bureaucratic euphemisms". 5, the act of labeling a term as a euphemism can in itself be controversial, as in the following two examples: Affirmative action, meaning a preference for minorities or the historically disadvantaged, usually in employment or academic admissions. This term is sometimes said to be a euphemism for reverse discrimination, or in the uk positive discrimination, which suggests an intentional bias that might be legally prohibited, or otherwise unpalatable. 6, enhanced interrogation is sometimes said to be a euphemism for torture. For example, columnist david Brooks called the use of this term for practices at Abu Ghraib, guantánamo, and elsewhere an effort to "dull the moral sensibility". 7 Formation edit Phonetic modification edit Phonetic euphemism is used to replace profanities, diminishing their intensity. Modifications include: Shortening or "clipping" the term, such as jeez (Jesus) and what the— what the hell mispronunciations, such as frak, frig (both the preceding for "fuck what the fudge, what the truck (both "what the fuck oh my gosh oh my god frickin fucking.
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A euphemism /jufəmɪzəm/ is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant. 1, some euphemisms are intended to amuse, while others use bland, inoffensive terms for concepts that the user wishes to downplay. Euphemisms may be used to refer to taboo topics essay (such as disability, sex, excretion, or death) in a polite way, or to mask profanity. 2, contents, etymology edit, euphemism comes from the, greek word euphemia (εφημία) which refers to the use of 'words of good omen it is a compound of eû (ε meaning 'good, well and phḗmē (φήμη meaning 'prophetic speech; rumour, talk'. Eupheme is a reference to the female Greek spirit of words of praise and positivity, etc. The term euphemism itself was used as a euphemism by the ancient Greeks ; with the meaning "to keep a holy silence" (speaking well by not speaking at all). 4, purpose edit, reasons for using euphemisms vary by context and intent. Commonly, euphemisms are used to avoid directly addressing subjects that might be deemed negative or embarrassing.