The san Jose School has demonstrated that its mobile approach works. "Academically, about 66 to 75 percent of our students end up on grade level in reading and math Schroeck told Education World. That's a higher rate than in local public schools, which typically exhibit about 50 percent of migrant students' performing at grade level, she said. Despite the school's success, "we won't be able to continue our ministry after this year moorhead told Education World. She cited three reasons for this decision: the inability, despite a national advertising campaign, to find mobile staff members to move with the school; a shift in the migration pattern - fewer migrant families are now working in Ohio; a lack of long-term corporate funding. "We're very encouraged by our host schools' desire to absorb our students and staff until we can start a new school moorhead said.
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All academic instruction at San Jose School is in English, although teachers will use some Spanish when explaining directions to students. Small class sizes of 12 to 15 students help meet the challenge of limited English proficiency, schroeck told Education World. She said that the program also has several volunteers, mostly from the Florida community, who work one-on-one with students. Poverty, a third concern for educators of migrant students is "the challenges that poverty places on children trying to learn moorhead said. "They may live in substandard five housing, they don't have the same clothes or book bags, they may look different" from other children at school. Schroeck told Education World migrant children may have health-related problems resulting from poverty. Migrant families "may have less money for food when work is light she explained. To help meet students' nutritional needs, the program offers a morning snack and a hot lunch (supplied through a government program). Self-Confidence and Self-Esteem, all of those challenges lead to a lack of self-confidence, which moorhead told Education World is "the biggest challenge" of migrant-education programs. The greatest benefit of San Jose School for its students, Schroeck told Education World, is that it "gives children the confidence and support they need to try and to learn.".
When students start the school year at one school and then move to another, they find "new textbooks, a whole new scenario moorhead said. To overcome this discontinuity, san Jose School personnel - even the bus driver - move along with the students. The school's mobility also prevents San Jose students from missing school altogether. Some migrant families may not send their children to the first few weeks of school in Ohio because they'll soon be summary leaving that school anyway, sister Michele Schroeck, san Jose's education coordinator, told Education World. "When they arrive in Florida where the school year begins earlier than in Ohio, they have missed almost a month of school.". The language barrier, moorhead identified the language barrier as a second major challenge of working with migrant students. "Most start kindergarten speaking Spanish only she said.
She sees the following challenges: Mobility "The challenges of migrant education begin essay with mobility moorhead told Education World. The san Jose School moves along with families as they travel between Ohio and Florida following the crops. "to our knowledge, we're the only mobile school in summary the country moorhead told Education World. The school serves students in kindergarten through third grade. San Jose School is run by the sisters of Mercy of the Americas. When planning the mercy migrant Education Ministry, moorhead told Education World, "research showed a somewhat stable pattern of migration between Florida and Ohio. We connected with Catholic facilities in the north and the south." so, for San Jose students, the school year begins in late august. Joseph Elementary School in Fremont, Ohio, and then moves to the. Clement Religious Education building in Plant City, florida.
The research behind voices from the field also revealed that migrant children "report frequently missing school for reasons other than for illness. Absence from school to assist parents in translating or otherwise negotiating the system presents an important and addressable barrier to academic achievement.". Falling behind and dropping out, frequent moves and frequent absences mean that migrant students often fall behind academically. "Because of their mobile lifestyle, migrant students often start school late and leave early cranston-Gingras told Education World. "Often, they are retained in one or more grades and fall behind their age peers." "Economic hardships as well as educational gaps place migrant children at risk to drop out of school before graduation say martinez and colleagues in voices from the field. The paper Fingers to the bone reports that "all of the juvenile farmworkers interviewed by human Rights Watch had dropped out of school or been held back at least one time. Nationally, the dropout rate for farmworker youth is 45 percent.". Addressing the challenges: one school's story. The, san Jose School (la escuela de san Jose) was established to address the main challenges to educating migrant schoolchildren, said Sister gaye moorhead, rsm, the director of the school and of the mercy migrant Education Ministry.
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In addition, economic necessity often forces migrant students, particularly teens, to work instead of attend school. "One of the most significant causes of low educational achievement is the fact that juvenile farmworkers simply spend too much time on the job says. Fingers to the bone: United States failure to Protect Child Farmworkers, a paper issued by human Rights Watch in June 2000. The paper cites a 1992 Department of Agriculture study that "found that, nationally, approximately 37 percent of adolescent farmworkers work full time.". Even if not working in the fields, "teenagers are often put in charge of their younger siblings according. Youth Employment in Agriculture. And not all working students are adolescents.
In voices from the field: Interviews With Students from Migrant Farmworker Families, researchers Yolanda. Martinez, john Scott., Ann Cranston-Gingras, and John. Platt reported that "75 percent of the students interviewed had work experience and that age was not a determining factor. Despite legislation to keep children out of the fields, children as young as six years sheet of age are still working in the fields.". Whether working in the fields or caring for younger siblings, "children as young as ten years old can make a significant contribution to their family's income by working rather than attending school noted Anneka. Kindler of the national Clearinghouse of Bilingual Education.
But you will find numerous situations where a creative breakthrough is staring you in the face. They are much more common than you probably think. From, inside the box: a proven System of Creativity for Breakthrough Results. Copyright 2014 Drew boyd. The children of migrant farm laborers in the United States face numerous educational challenges because of frequent moves and economic hardship.
Education World examines the special needs of migrant schoolchildren and tells how one school met those needs. Included: An extensive list of resources about the nation's migrant farmworkers. Best Approaches, migrant farmworkers are "the most undereducated major subgroup in the country wrote katherine milton and Jack. Watson in the paper Distance Education for Mexican-American Migrant Farmworkers prepared at Arizona State University. Milton and Watson concluded that "distance learning programs that move with the students and which allow them to access their coursework from anywhere they live could provide the greatest potential for academic success." "The most significant and unique challenge faced by migrant students is mobility-induced. Center for the Study of Migrant Education at the University of south Florida, told Education World. Cranston-Gingras has studied the needs of students who are migrant farmworkers or the children of farmworkers who travel to find work harvesting crops. Cranston-Gingras also told Education World that the "cumulative effects of several years of this lifestyle can be devastating from an educational and emotional standpoint.". Challenges of migrant education, migrant children miss school when their families move from one work site to another.
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In other words, the difference could easily be due to what statisticians call sampling error. Lets look a little more closely at these surprising results. Solving this problem requires people to literally think outside the box. Yet participants performance was not improved even when they were given specific instructions to. That is, direct and explicit instructions to think outside the box did not help. That this advice is useless when actually trying to solve a problem involving writing a real box should effectively have killed off the much widely disseminated—and therefore, much more dangerous—metaphor that out-of-the-box thinking spurs creativity. After all, with one simple yet brilliant experiment, researchers had proven that the conceptual link between thinking outside the box and creativity was a myth. Of course, in real life you wont find boxes.
Both teams followed the same protocol of dividing participants into two groups. The first group was given the same instructions as the participants in guilfords experiment. The second group was told that the solution required the lines to be drawn outside the imaginary box bordering the dot array. In other words, the trick was revealed in advance. Would you like to guess the percentage of the participants in the second group who solved the puzzle correctly? Most people assume that 60 percent to 90 percent of the group given the clue would solve the puzzle easily. In fact, only a meager 25 percent did. Whats more, in statistical terms, this 5 percent improvement over the subjects of guilfords original proper study is insignificant.
were obviously not as creative or smart as they had previously thought, and needed to call in creative experts. Or so their consultants would have them believe. The nine-dot puzzle and the phrase thinking outside the box became metaphors for creativity and spread like wildfire in, management, psychology, the creative arts, engineering, and personal improvement circles. There seemed to be no end to the insights that could be offered under the banner of thinking outside the box. Speakers, trainers, training program developers, organizational consultants, and university professors all had much to say about the vast benefits of outside-the-box thinking. It was an appealing and apparently convincing message. Indeed, the concept enjoyed such strong popularity and intuitive appeal that no one bothered to check the facts. No one, that is, before two different research —Clarke burnham with Kenneth davis, and Joseph Alba with Robert weisberg—ran another experiment using the same puzzle but a different research procedure.
If you have tried solving this puzzle, you can confirm that your first attempts usually involve sketching lines inside the imaginary square. The correct solution, however, requires you to resume draw lines that extend beyond the area defined by the dots. At the first stages, all the participants in guilfords original study censored their own thinking by limiting the possible solutions to those within the imaginary square (even those who eventually solved the puzzle). Even though they werent instructed to restrain themselves from considering such a solution, they were unable to see the white space beyond the squares boundaries. Only 20 percent managed to break out of the illusory confinement and continue their lines in the white space surrounding the dots. The symmetry, the beautiful simplicity of the solution, and the fact that 80 percent of the participants were effectively blinded by the boundaries of the square led guilford and the readers of his books to leap to the sweeping conclusion that creativity requires you. The idea went viral (via 1970s-era media and word of mouth, of course). Overnight, it seemed that creativity gurus everywhere were teaching managers how to think outside the box.
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Although studying is considered a legitimate scientific nowadays, it is still a very young one. In the early 1970s, a psychologist named. Guilford was one of the first academic researchers who dared to conduct a study of creativity. One of guilfords most famous studies was the nine-dot puzzle. He challenged research subjects to connect all nine dots using just four straight lines without lifting their pencils from the page. Today many people are familiar with this puzzle and its solution. In the 1970s, however, very few were even aware of its existence, even though it had been around for almost a century.