A spoiler strategy would have caused him to focus disproportionately on the most competitive states and markets with the hopes of being a key player in the outcome. There is no evidence that his appearances responded to closeness. He did, apparently, pursue voter support, however, in a quest to receive 5 of the popular vote. 50 However, jonathan Chait of The American Prospect and The new Republic notes that Nader did indeed focus on swing states disproportionately during the waning days of the campaign, and by doing so jeopardized his own chances of achieving the 5 of the vote. Then there was the debate within the nader campaign over where to travel in the waning days of the campaign. Some nader advisers urged him to spend his time in uncontested states such as New York and California. These states where liberals and leftists could entertain the thought of voting Nader without fear of aiding Bush offered the richest harvest of potential votes. But, martin writes, nader who emerges from this account as the house radical of his own campaign insisted on spending the final days of the campaign on a whirlwind tour of battleground states such as Pennsylvania and Florida.
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Presidential election, in which 537 votes gave george. Bush a crucial and controversial victory in Florida (Nader received almost 100,000 votes in Florida, from which a slight decrease in favor of Gore would have value altered the outcome). Others, including Nader, dispute this claim. 50 51 presidential election in Florida, george. Bush defeated Al Gore by 537 votes. Nader received 97,421 votes, which led to claims that he was responsible for Gore's defeat. Nader, both in his book crashing the party and on his website, states: "In the year 2000, exit polls reported that 25 of my voters would have voted for Bush, 38 would have voted for Gore and the rest would not have voted at all.". 56 When asked about claims of being a spoiler, nader typically points to the controversial Supreme court respiratory ruling that halted a florida recount, gore's loss in his home state of Tennessee, and the "quarter million Democrats who voted for Bush in Florida." 57. In other words, most of the changes in pre-election polling reflect movement between Bush and Gore rather than Gore and Nader, and they conclude from this that Nader was not responsible for Gore's loss. 59 An analysis conducted by harvard Professor. Burden in 2005 showed Nader did "play a pivotal role in determining who would become president following the 2000 election but that: Contrary to democrats' complaints, nader was not intentionally trying to throw the election.
Bush were " Tweedledee and Tweedledum ". A long list of notable celebrities spoke and performed at the event including Susan Sarandon, ani difranco, ben Harper, tim Robbins, michael moore, eddie vedder and Patti Smith. The campaign also had some prominent union help: The california nurses Association and the United Electrical Workers endorsed his candidacy and campaigned for him. 44 In 2000, nader and his running mate winona laduke received 2,883,105 votes, for.74 writing percent of the popular vote (third place overall 45 missing the 5 percent needed to qualify the Green Party for federally distributed public funding in the next election, yet qualifying. Nader often openly expressed his hope for Bush's victory over Gore, saying it "would mobilize us 46 and that environmental and consumer regulatory agencies would fare better under Bush than Gore. 47 When asked which of the two he'd vote for if forced, nader answered "Bush If you want the parties to diverge from one another, have bush win." 48 As to whether he would feel regret if he caused Gore's defeat, nader replied "I would. I'd rather have a provocateur than an anesthetizer in the White house." 49 On another occasion, nader answered this question with: "no, not at all. There may be a cold shower for four years that would help the democratic Party. It doesn't matter who is in the White house." 47 Spoiler controversy a common claim is that Nader's candidacy acted as a spoiler in the 2000.
running mates included: Anne goeke (nine states deborah Howes (Oregon muriel Tillinghast (New York krista paradise (Colorado madelyn Hoffman (New Jersey bill Boteler (Washington,. and Winona laduke (California and Texas). 37 2000 words main article: Ralph Nader presidential campaign, 20ocumentary An Unreasonable man, nader describes how he was unable to get the views of his public interest groups heard in Washington, even by the Clinton Administration. Nader cites this as one of the primary reasons that he decided to actively run in the 2000 election as candidate of the Green Party, which had been formed in the wake of his 1996 campaign. Nader's supporters, with Christopher Hitchens speaking, protest his exclusion from the televised debates in 20, The Association of State Green Parties (asgp) organized the national nominating convention that took place in Denver, colorado, at which Green party delegates nominated Ralph Nader and Winona laduke. 38 39 On July 9, the vermont Progressive party nominated Nader, giving him ballot access in the state. 40 On August 12, the United Citizens Party of south Carolina chose ralph Nader as its presidential nominee, giving him a ballot line in the state. 41 In October 2000, at the largest Super Rally of his campaign, 42 held in New York city 's Madison Square garden, 15,000 people paid 20 each 43 to hear Nader speak. Nader's campaign rejected both parties as institutions dominated by corporate interests, stating that Al Gore and george.
1996 Campaign button from 1996 Nader was drafted as a candidate for President of the United States on the Green Party ticket during the 1996 presidential election. He was not formally nominated by the Green Party usa, which was, at the time, the largest national Green group; instead he was nominated independently by various state Green parties (in some states, he appeared on the ballot as an independent). However, many activists in the Green Party usa worked actively to campaign for Nader that year. Nader qualified for ballot status in 22 states, 33 garnering 685,297 votes.71 of the popular vote (fourth place overall 34 although the effort did make significant organizational gains for the party. He refused to raise or spend more than 5,000 on his campaign, presumably to avoid meeting the threshold for Federal Elections Commission reporting requirements; the unofficial Draft Nader committee could (and did) spend more than that, but the committee was legally prevented from coordinating. Nader received some criticism from gay rights supporters for calling gay rights "gonad politics" and stating that he was not interested in dealing with such matters. 35 However, more recently, nader has come out in support of same-sex marriage.
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23 The organization's main efforts were directed at lobbying activities and providing local groups with scientific and other resources to campaign against nuclear power. 24 25 Ralph Nader lectures at Florida State University, 1980s Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, through his ongoing work with Public Citizen, nader continued to be involved in issues of consumer rights and public accountability. His work testifying before congress, drafting model legislation, and organizing citizen letter-writing and protest efforts, earned him direct credit for the enactment of the Freedom of Information Act, foreign Corrupt Practices Act, clean Water Act, consumer Product Safety Act, and Whistleblower Protection Act In the. He would organize a conference featuring Microsoft's critics from the tech world. 26 Presidential campaigns Presidential campaign history 1972 Campaign button from the 1972 effort to draft Nader to be the candidate for the new Party ralph Nader's name appeared in the press as a potential candidate for president for the first time in 1971, when. 16 Psychologist Alan Rockway organized a "draft Ralph Nader for President" campaign in Florida on the new Party's behalf.
27 Nader declined their offer to run that year; the new Party ultimately joined with the people's Party in running Benjamin Spock in the 1972 presidential election. Spock had hoped Nader in particular would run, getting "some of the loudest applause of the evening" when mentioning him at the University of Alabama. 29 Spock went on to try to recruit Nader for the party among over 100 others, and indicated he would be "delighted" to be replaced by any of them even after he accepted the nomination himself. 30 Nader received one vote for the vice-presidential nomination at the 1972 Democratic National Convention. 1992 Button from 1992 Nader stood in as a write-in for "none of the above" in both the 1992 New Hampshire democratic and Republican Primaries 31 and received 3,054 of the 170,333 Democratic votes and 3,258 of the 177,970 Republican votes cast. 32 he was also a candidate in the 1992 Massachusetts Democratic Primary, where he appeared at the top of the ballot (in some areas, he appeared on the ballot as an independent ).
14 Following the publication of the report, in 1971, nader founded the watchdog group Public Citizen to engage in public interest lobbying and activism on issues of consumer rights, serving on its board of directors until 1980. 1970s1990s Nader in 1975 by the early 1970s Nader had established himself as a household name. In a critical memo written by lewis Powell to the. Chamber of Commerce, powell warned business representatives that Nader "has become a legend in his own time and an idol of millions of Americans". 15 Ralph Nader's name appeared in the press as a potential candidate for president for the first time in 1971, when he was offered the opportunity to run as the presidential candidate for the new Party, a progressive split-off from the democratic Party. Chief among his advocates was author Gore vidal, who touted a 1972 Nader presidential campaign in a front-page article in Esquire magazine in 1971.
16 Nader declined the advances. 17 18 In 1973, ralph Nader was plaintiff in the case against acting attorney general Robert Bork, who under orders of President Richard Nixon had fired special prosecutor Archibald Cox in the so-called Saturday night Massacre, an action that was ultimately ruled illegal by federal. 19 In 1974 he received the. Roger Horchow Award for Greatest Public Service by a private citizen. S, nader turned his attention to environmental activism, becoming a key leader in the antinuclear power movement, described by one observer as the "titular head of opposition to nuclear energy". 21 22 The Critical Mass Energy Project was formed by nader in 1974 as a national anti-nuclear umbrella group, growing to become the largest national anti-nuclear group in the United States, with several hundred local affiliates and an estimated 200,000 supporters.
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11 writing 12 Nader, by then working as an unpaid consultant to United States Senator Abe ribicoff, reported to the senator that he suspected he was being followed. Ribicoff convened an inquiry that called gm ceo james Roche who admitted, when placed under oath, that the company had hired a private detective agency to investigate nader. Nader sued gm for invasion of privacy, settling the case for 425,000 and using the proceeds to found the activist organization the center for the Study of Responsive law. 7 a year following the publication of Unsafe at Any Speed, congress unanimously enacted the national Traffic and Motor Vehicle safety Act. Speaker of the United States house of Representatives John William McCormack said the passage of the national Traffic and Motor Vehicle safety Act was due to the "crusading spirit of one individual who believed he could do something: Ralph Nader". 13 "Nader's raiders" and Public Citizen In 1968 Nader recruited seven volunteer law students, dubbed "Nader's raiders" by the washington press corps, to evaluate the efficacy and operation of the federal Trade commission (FTC). The group's ensuing report, which criticized the body as "ineffective" and "passive" led to an American Bar Association investigation of the ftc. Based on the results of that second study, richard Nixon revitalized the agency and sent it on a path of vigorous consumer protection and antitrust enforcement for the rest of the 1970s.
7 After graduating from Harvard, nader served in the. Army as a cook and was posted to fort Dix. 7 Career Early history In 1959 Nader was admitted to the bar and began practice as a lawyer in Hartford, connecticut, while also lecturing at the University of Hartford and traveling to the soviet Union, chile, and Cuba, where he filed dispatches for the Christian. 7 In 1964, he moved to washington,. C., taking a position as a consultant to Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick moynihan. 9 Unsafe at Any Speed Nader was first propelled into the national spotlight with the 1965 publication of his journalistic expose Unsafe at Any Speed. Though he had previously expressed an interest in issues of automobile safety while a law student, Unsafe at Any Speed presented write a critical dissection of the automotive industry by claiming that many American automobiles were generally unsafe to operate. Nader researched case files from more than 100 lawsuits then pending against General Motors ' chevrolet Corvair to support his assertions. 10 The book became an immediate bestseller but also prompted a vicious backlash from General Motors (GM) who attempted to discredit Nader by tapping his phone in an attempt to uncover salacious information and, when that failed, hiring prostitutes in an attempt to catch him.
paper, the winsted Register Citizen. 7 Nader graduated from The gilbert School in 1951, going on to attend Princeton University. Though offered a scholarship to Princeton, nader's father forced him to decline the offer on the grounds that the family was able to pay nader's tuition and the funds should go to a student who could not afford. 8 Nader graduated magna cum laude with a bachelor of Arts from the woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs in 1955. After graduating from Princeton, nader began studying at Harvard Law School, though he quickly became bored by his courses. While at Harvard, nader would frequently skip classes to hitchhike across the. Where he would engage in field research on Native american issues and migrant worker rights. He earned. From Harvard in 1958.
Public Interest Research Group, the, center for Auto safety, and, public Citizen. Nader's activism has been directly credited with the passage of several landmark pieces of American consumer protection legislation including the. Clean Water Act, essay the, freedom of Information Act, the, consumer Product Safety Act, the, foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the. Whistleblower Protection Act, and the, national Traffic and Motor Vehicle safety Act. He has been repeatedly named to lists of the "100 Most Influential Americans including those published. Life magazine, time magazine, and, the Atlantic, among others. President of the United States on several occasions as an independent and third party candidate, using the campaigns to highlight under-reported issues and a perceived need for electoral reform. A two-time nieman Fellow, nader is the author or co-author of more than two dozen books, and was the subject of a documentary film on his life and work, an Unreasonable man, which debuted at the 2006 Sundance film Festival. Contents Early life and education Ralph Nader was born in Winsted, connecticut, to nathra and Rose (née bouziane) Nader, both of whom were immigrants from Lebanon.
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Ralph Nader ( /neɪdər/ ; born February 27, 1934) 1 2 is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney, noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism and government reform causes. The son of Lebanese immigrants to the United States, nader was educated. Princeton and, harvard outsiders and first came to prominence in 1965 with the publication of the bestselling book. Unsafe at Any Speed, a critique of the safety record of American automobile manufacturers that became known as one of the most important journalistic pieces of the 20th century. Following the publication. Unsafe at Any Speed, nader led a group of volunteer law students—dubbed "Nader's raiders"—in a groundbreaking investigation of the. Federal Trade commission, leading directly to that agency's overhaul and reform. In the 1970s, nader leveraged his growing popularity to establish a number of advocacy and watchdog groups including the.