Facial Expressions: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness, friendliness, warmth, and liking. So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more likable, friendly, warm and approachable. Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably. They will be more comfortable around you and will want to listen more. Gestures: If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as boring and stiff. A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention, makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates understanding. Posture and body orientation: you communicate numerous messages by the way you talk and move.
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They are listed in the order in which they occur most frequently in daily conversations. Notice that we make judgments more often than we try to understand: evaluative: making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or its appropriateness of the other person's statement. Interpretive: Paraphrasing — attempting to explain what the other person's statement means. Supportive: Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator. Probing: Attempting to gain additional information, continue the discussion, or clarify a point. Understanding: Attempting to discover completely what the other communicator means by her statements. Imagine how much better daily communications would be if listeners tried to understand first, before they tried to evaluate what someone is saying. Nonverbal Behaviors of Communication to deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal communication: eye contact: This helps to regulate the flow of communication. It arguments signals interest in others and increases the speaker's credibility. People who make eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and credibility.
— kung fu tzu (Confucius) The purpose of feedback is to alter messages so the intention of the original communicator is understood by the second communicator. It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another person's message. Providing feedback may be accomplished by paraphrasing the words of the sender. Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words, rather than repeating their words. Your words should be saying, This is what i understand your feelings and thoughts to be; am I correct? It not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbal ones. Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show agreement, dipping your eyebrows to show you don't quite understand the meaning of their last phrase, or sucking air in deeply and blowing it you hard shows that you are also exasperated with the situation. Carl Rogers (1951) listed five main categories of feedback.
Provides feedback, but does not interrupt incessantly. Analyzes the conversation by looking at all the relevant factors and asking open-ended questions. Walks others words through by summarizing. Keeps the conversation on tract by focusing on what others say, not on what interests them. Take brief notes as needed to help them concentrate on what is being said. Feedback When you know something, say what you know. When you don't know something, say that you don't know.
The following are some of the traits of active listeners: Spends more time listening than talking. Does not finish the sentences of others. Does not answer questions with questions. They are aware of biases. We all have them. We need to control them. Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their own thoughts when others talk. Lets the other speakers speak and does not dominate the conversation. Plans responses after others have finished speaking, not while they are speaking.
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Listening is a selective activity that involves the desk reception and the interpretation of aural stimuli. It involves decoding the sound into meaning. Listening is divided into two main categories: passive and active. Passive listening is little more that hearing. It occurs when the receiver of the message has little motivation to sales listen carefully, such as we often do when listening to music, television, or when being polite. People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute (wpm but they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 wpm.
Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy to go into mind drift —thinking about other things while listening to someone. The cure for this is active listening —which involves listening with a purpose. It may be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, or show support. It requires that the listener attends to the words and the feelings of the sender for understanding. It requires the receiver to hear the various messages, understand the meaning, and then verify the meaning by offering feedback. It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking.
Semantic distractions occur when a word is used differently than you prefer. For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson, may cause you to focus on the word rather than the message. Environmental —, bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any other stimulus provides a potential distraction. Smothering —, we take it for granted that the impulse to send useful information is automatic. Too often we believe that certain information has no value to others or they are already aware of the facts.
Stress —, people do not see things the same way when under stress. What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of references, such as our beliefs, values, knowledge, experiences, or goals. These barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, the message leaves the sender, goes through the above filters, and is then heard by the receiver. These filters may muffle the message. And the way to overcome filters is through active listening and feedback. Hearing and listening are not the same thing. Hearing is the act of perceiving sound. It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural stimuli.
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Ourselves —, focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can lead to confusion and conflict. The me generation must be tossed aside for effective communication to occur. Some of the factors that cause this are the defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us superiority (we feel we know more that the other and ego (we feel we are the center of the activity). Perception feasibility —, if we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person. Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen. We may listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss those of low status. Distractions happen when we focus on the facts, rather than the idea being communicated. Our educational institutions reinforce this with tests and questions.
Communication is an exchange, not a give, as all parties must participate to complete the lord information exchange. Barriers to communication, nothing is so simple that it cannot be misunderstood. — freeman teague,. Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a barrier to communication. Many physical and psychological barriers exist: Culture, background, and bias —. We allow our experiences to change the meaning of the message. Our culture, background, and bias can be good as they allow us to use our past experiences to understand something new, it is when they change the meaning of the message that they interfere with the communication process. Noise —, equipment or environmental noise impedes clear communication. The sender and the receiver must both be able to concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.
behaviors more than verbal behaviors. Some leaders think they have communicated once they told someone to do something, i don't know why it did not get done. I told Jim to. More than likely, jim misunderstood the message. A message has not been communicated unless it is understood by the receiver (decoded). How do you know it has been properly received? By two-way communication or feedback. This feedback tells the sender that the receiver understood the message, its level of importance, and what must be done with.
The communication Process, communicating with others involves three primary steps: Thought : First, information exists in the mind of the sender, such as a concept, idea, information, or feelings. Encoding : Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols. Decoding : Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that he or she can understand. During the transmitting of the message, two elements will be received: content and context. Content is the actual words or symbols of the message that is known as language — the spoken and written words combined into phrases that make grammatical and semantic sense. We all use and interpret the meanings bill of words differently, so even simple messages can be misunderstood. And many words have different meanings to confuse the issue even more. Context is the way the message is delivered and is known as paralanguage — it is the nonverbal elements in speech such as the tone of voice, the look in the sender's eyes, body language, hand gestures, and state of emotions (anger, fear, uncertainty, confidence.
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No one would talk much in society if they knew how often they misunderstood others. — johann Wolfgang Von goethe. Communication is the exchange and flow of information and ideas from one person to another; it involves a sender transmitting an idea, information, or feeling to a receiver (U.S. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. Many of the problems that occur in an organization are (Mistry, jaggers, lodge, alton, mericle, frush, meliones, 2008 the direct result of people failing to communicate processes that leads to confusion and can cause good plans to fail. Studying the communication process is important because you coach, coordinate, counsel, evaluate, and supervise throughout this process. It is the chain of understanding that integrates the members of an organization from top to bottom, business bottom to top, and side-to-side.