There were different systems of collection of land revenue. The main source of the mughal treasury was the land-revenue. But customs duties, mint, presents or peshkash, imposition of fines and war-booties etc. Also fetched considerable sum. Many historians have praised the revenue system of Akbar. The state became sure about its income.
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Thus the power of the provinces could not be concentrated in the hands of any single person. The subas were again subdivided into sarkars or districts. Each sarkar was under a faujdar. He was responsible for administration of the sarkar. The sarkars were again subdivided into parganas. Like sher methai Shah, akbar also showed interest in the land revenue system. During the early years of his reign Akbar made several revenue experiments. At last Todarmals system of revenue was adopted. Three salient features of the mughal land-revenue system was introduced by akbar. They were: measurement of land, Classification of land and, fixation of rate. Todarmal made a thorough survey of land.
They were: (i) vakil or Prime minister, (ii) writing wazir or Diwan who was the finance minister, (iii) Mir Bhaksi who was in charge of the military department and (iv) Mirsaman or the store-keeper. Provincial administration, for the convenience of provincial administration Akbar divided his empire in 15 provinces. There were some autonomous feudatory areas as well. Subedars were in charge of the provincial administration. They maintained law and order of the area under their command and carried out the orders of the emperor. For the collection of revenue there was a diwan. Akbar divided distinctly the powers of Subedar and Diwan.
That was his last conquest. At his death four years later Akbars empire extended from Kabul in the west to bengal in the east and from the foot of the himalayas in the north to the river Narmada in the south. Akbars administration, the principle and systems of Mughal administration points was mainly the product of the genius of Akbar. His administrative system requires careful study as it continued to be like the basis of the administrative system up to the time of the British rule. The mughal Emperors were despotic rulers in whose hands all civil and military powers of the state were concentrated. The emperor was the supreme commander of the imperial forces and fountain-head of justice; his word was law. But as it was not possible for any person to bear the whole burden, the emperor took advice and active assistance from his ministers. Of the ministers, four were important.
Then Akbar turned his attention to north-western India which had become a trouble-spot and refuge for rebels. In 1581 Akbar defeated his younger brother hakim who ruled as an independent king in Kabul. Akbar annexed Kabul after the death of hakim in 1585. He completed the conquest of Kashmir, sind and Kandahar between 1586 to 1595. By this time, akbar had become the master of northern and central India. Having thus completed the conquest of northern India akbar sought to conquer southern India. He stormed Ahmadnagar in 1600 and captured Asirgarh in Khandesh in 1601.
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But he was defeated and you had to leave the battle field. Even after this Rana Pratap continued his heroic resistance. Before his death in 1597 he was able to restore most of Mewar except Chittor. Other Conquests, after Mewar Akbar turned his eyes to the rich province of Gujarat. The ports of Gujarat were important as centers of trade with West Asia and Europe. In 1572 Akbar invaded Gujarat and conquered Ahmedabad.
Next year he again came to gujarat, conquered the rich port Surat and annexed the province. Akbars empire now extended to the sea and he could profit by the rich commerce passing through Surat and other western ports. After the fall of Gujarat, akbar turned his attention to bengal and Bihar. Daud Khan, the ruler of Bengal and Bihar had declared independence. Akbar sent various expeditions between 1574 to 1576 to these provinces. Daud Khan was finally defeated and killed in 1576 and his kingdom was annexed. But the powerful local chiefs of east and south-east Bengal known as Baro Bhuiyans continued to resist for some time.
Akbars Rajputs policy was a part of his grand plan of establishing a vast empire. Though most of the rajputs states recognized Akbar as their emperor, mewar did not. So akbar invaded Mewar and besieged Chittor in 1567. Rana Udai singh fled from Chittor. But the rajputs of the Chittor fort offered brave resistance under the leadership of jaimal and Putta.
After a heroic resistance for four months Akbar was able to conquer the fort. The rajputs fought to the last and almost all of them died. After the fall of Chittor the rulers of bikaner and jaisalmer voluntarily offered their submission. The ruler of Ranthambhor also surrendered after a little resistance. But even after that Mewar under Rana Pratap Singh, the valiant son of Udai singh continued to defy the mughals. Against him Akbar sent a vast army under Asaf Khan and Man Singh. On 18th June, 1576, Pratap fought a valiant battle against the mughals in the battle of Haldighati.
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He also knew that if he could receive help of the bill brave rajputs warriors, his empire would be secure and his dependence on the fortune seekers from Afghanistan and Central Asia would be reduced. So he tried to earn the friendship of the rajputs and adopted three policies towards Rajputs princes. With some important royal families he effected matrimonial alliance. He gave the princes of these rajputs families high posts both in civil and military departments. Some other Rajputs princes offered submission but did not send their daughters to the mughal harem. Akbar treated them leniently and allowed them to retain their kingdoms as his vassals. But some rajput Kings like. Rana Udai singh of Mewar refused to suffer the ignominy of the mughal rule. Akbar tried to crush them.
In the initial years of his reign, green akbar abolished Pilgrims Tax in 1563 and jiziya in 1564. In spite of these internal reforms Akbar found time to make preparation for his conquests. His first victim was Gondwana (now northern part of the central Province). Rani durgavati, who was regent for her young son, fought valiantly against the mughal General. But she could not stem the onslaught of the vast Mughal army. After a brave resistance the queen committed suicide. Rajputs policy of Akbar, after the conquest of Gondwana akbar turned his attention to rajputana. Akbar felt that for the safety of the mughal Empire and for expansion towards western and southern India, rajputana was strategically important.
mother. Maham Anga and some of her close relatives wielded the power. But in 1564, at the age of twenty, akbar took full control of the empire in his own hands. Akbars Conquest, akbar was an imperialist. After the fall of bairam Akbar had to face several rebellions. These rebellions created an opinion in Akbars mind that existence of other states, big or small, were dangerous for the paramount power. Abut fazal, however, said that Akbar had wanted to extend the empire to provide good government to the peoples living in other states.
Hemu also marched towards the paperwork punjab. The two armies met at the historical plains of Panipat on november 5, 1556. Though Hemu fought valiantly, he was defeated and put to death. Thus the second Battle of Panipat (1556. D.) again decided the fate of India in favour of the mughal Empire and Akbar. It also ended the mughal-Afghan contest for supremacy. Fall of bairam Khan, bairam Khan remained at the helm of affairs of the state for about four years. During his regency Gwalior, Ajmer and jaunpur were captured. Akbar was growing up and he wanted to rule the realm himself.
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Akbar, also known as Akbar the Great, ascended the throne of Mughal Empire at the young age of 14 in 1556. After the sudden death of his father, humayun, the new young emperor (Akbar) succeeded to a difficult position. The Afghans had still enough military power and they were regrouping their forces under the Afghan leader Ali Adil Shah and his Hindu general Hemu. Under the leadership of Hemu the Afghan forces captured Delhi and Agra. After the capture of Delhi hemu assumed the title of vikramjit and declared himelf emperor. At healthy that time akbar and his wazir and guardian bairam Khan, a loyal friend of Humayun, was in the punjab. On hearing the catastrophic news of the fall of Delhi they proceeded towards Delhi.