There are already indications of small increases in male nurses—from.5 in 2003.2 this year. These new job possibilities would make a dent in male unemployment rates, but would not solve the problem. Since it doesnt look like our government will be making any significant investments in rebuilding our crumbling infrastructure in the near future, or in helping to launch 21st-century alternate energy projects—as other advanced industrialized countries are doing—it is hard to see how we can significantly. This is the real male crisis that may well be on the horizon.
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The present cuts in government spending present an opportunity to press for cutting spending on high school zombies sports instead of eliminating art, music, and pro-social programs such as conflict resolution and anti-bullying. These latter programs encourage emotional intelligence—including traits such as patience, empathy, ability to communicate. Hymowitz correctly points out that these traits, more common in women, are useful in a knowledge economy. In a study measuring stereotypically masculine radiation and feminine traits, jean Twenge found that college women endorsed masculine traits such as forceful, ambitious, assertive, at a high rate, but men showed only a weak trend toward feminine traits including nurturance and caring. It makes sense that since women have gravitated toward higher paying and often more prestigious male jobs, they have also developed some masculine personality traits. The reverse is not true. Men have not gravitated toward traditionally female jobs or the traits connected to them. This is particularly deleterious to working class men, so many of whom have lost their blue-collar jobs. If boys were rewarded and admired for studiousness and empathy more than for sports, some of these men would at least have a chance at succeeding in a knowledge economy. I doubt that there will ever be as many male nurses or health care attendants, but the percentages might increase significantly.
Many of todays young men want to share with their wives the burden of providing with their families. The other factor that Hymowitz ignores is how the emphasis on sports discourages boys from focusing on their studies. Studiousness seems to come less naturally to boys as a group than to girls. Even countries like iran and the Arab Emirates have more female than male students at universities. If we are serious about helping boys do slogan as well as we know they can, we need to reward the boys who write the best essays, get the highest grades, create the best art work, excel at chess or on the debate team. But outside a small number of elite and private high schools, boys who read, study, and do homework most often are viewed as geeks, nerds, or sissies. The heroes of our high schools are athletes—especially members of the football team. With this value system—further encouraged by the entertainment industry— is it surprising that boys do not do as well as girls and do not develop the good study habits that make for success in college?
Daughters could now take over the business, join the law firm, or be a source of short pride by doing well academically and professionally. Young women were excited about the new prospect of being taken seriously. There was no such excitement for young men, who had been taken seriously forever. To them do your own thing might well mean doing whats fun, not following in your hard-working fathers footsteps. (Anecdotally, among my highly educated acquaintances five sons are jazz or rock musicians; one is a circus acrobat.). Much of the often very crude media and entertainment aimed at young men has further encouraged a boys just wanna have fun mentality. I would suggest that these cultural changes provide a more convincing explanation for the increase in young men choosing not to take on familial responsibilities than do womens earnings or opting for single motherhood. Most women do not opt to raise their children alone; they do so when the father is not available.
In discussing why boys are falling behind girls academically, hymowitz ignores two factors essential to understanding the problem. Todays young people have been raised by baby boomer parents, many of whom brought with them sixties values. Do your own thing was the slogan embodying the movement away from traditional values like responsibility and duty. (A correction to stifling earlier values was necessary, but went much too far.) Psychology professor jean Twenge, author. Generation me, is among the researchers who have amassed data on the self-focus, self-centeredness, and conviction you can attain whatever you want that characterize many of todays young. Why would these characteristics have a worse effect on boys than girls? Baby boomers were the first generation to treat their daughters seriously in terms of academic and professional achievement, and encouraged traits of hard work, determination, postponement of gratification necessary to achieve those ends. Mothers were excited by this new found freedom; some went back to school themselves. Fathers who had only daughters no longer needed to bemoan the absence of a male heir.
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Women have hardly taken over the knowledge economy; nor is its growth the major reason for womens progress in the workplace. While giving some credit to the womens movement, hymowitz plays down its role and emphasizes the advent of household technology—dish washers, washing machines, vacuum cleaners—and the knowledge economy as the crucial forces leading to change. But upper middle class women did not need household technology in order to enter the workplace—they had maids. Traditional gender roles kept talented, motivated women in the home. For every Elizabeth Blackwell who struggled to become the first. Female physician, imagine the thousands of 19th and 20th century women denied the right to any profession. As for working class women, many worked in factories even after they married.
Hymowitz acknowledges that women still earn less on average than men, that only 22 of wives earn more than their husbands, that the higher echelons of corporate boardrooms are dominated by men (in fact, even at middle and lower levels, men are the majority and. She notes that while male unemployment rates have been considerably higher since the 2008 recession, recently men have been gaining and women have been losing jobs. Hymowitz points to the fact that young unmarried women in many large cities are earning more than their male counterparts. She cites this fact as evidence that college educated men are being left behind. For many of these young women, the advantage will be short-lived: A third of professional women leave the workforce voluntarily for an average.7 years to care for their children. When they return, for only 40 find full time jobs.
Nor does she convincingly argue that the increased equality of women in the workplace comes at the cost of mens decline. Take the following argument: Mens wages have stalled, hymowitz points out. They remain about the same as in 1970 after inflation, while womens earning have climbed steadily. Of course womens earning have risen more since the days when newspaper want ads were divided into male/ female columns, with higher paying jobs in the male column, and when 5 female"s kept women out of professional schools. Most of the brilliant women who did get in met the same fate that Sandra day oconnor first met.
Upon graduating Stanford Law School, she was unable to get a job in a law firm—and rejected an offer to serve as legal secretary! The second-wave feminist movement changed all that, but in spite of enormous progress, on average men still earn more than women. The knowledge economy has indeed been good to women, opening up jobs in computers, graphic design, public relations and so forth. But men also profit from this expansion. While women may be doing better in some areas, men dominate in many others including the very lucrative hi-tech industry. In many traditional fields including engineering, finance, academia, and politics, men remain the majority.
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Reading the selections is somewhat akin to retracing the innovations and developments of the field over the past two decades—and Messner has been at the cutting edge at every turn. — douglas Hartmann, author. Race, culture, and the revolt of the Black Athlete: The 1968 Olympic Protests and Their Aftermath. Messner is Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at the University report of southern California and is the author or editor of several books, including. Taking the field: Women, men, and Sports and, paradoxes of youth and Sport (coedited with Margaret Gatz and Sandra. Ball-rokeach also published by suny press). The illustration accompanying Hymowitzs essay captures the crisis she posits with respect to the status of men: The female marches ahead triumphant, while the male, on a leash, crawls behind on all fours. While male educational and workplace problems need to be addressed, hymowitzs arguments in no way point to a crisis.
From beer ads in the, sports Illustrated swimsuit issue to four-year-old boys and girls playing soccer; from male athletes sexual violence against women to homophobia and racism in sport, out of Play analyzes connections between gender and sport from the 1980s to the present. The book illuminates a wide range of contemporary issues in popular culture, childrens sports, and womens and mens college and professional sports. Each chapter is preceded by a short introduction that lays out the context in which the piece was written. Drawing on his own memories as a former athlete, informal observations of his childrens sports activities, and more formal research such as life-history interviews with athletes and content analyses of sports media, michael. Messner presents a multifaceted picture of gender constructed through an array of personalities, institutions, cultural symbols, and everyday interactions. This book provides a valuable glitter introduction to the issues concerning gender in sport while also maintaining a sophisticated level of analysis messners innovative work certainly deserves reprinting, and this volume conveniently self-selects some of his most influential arguments. Signs, in, out of Play, michael Messner tells a fascinating story about the gender dynamics at play in late twentieth-century organized sports The brilliance of Messners volume lies in its ability to combine analysis of materially based institutional structures and media-based representations that together project. American journal of Play, messner takes the topic of gender to new heights will be an appealing, eye-opening, and frightening read for anyone interested in sports, womens studies, gender studies, or American culture in general. Choice, there is a tremendous range, depth, and quality to messners scholarship that has had a profound impact on the field.
in each plate, was shown 16 times in six countries, with over a million viewers. This book is a fitting tribute. —, choice: Current reviews for Academic Libraries. Serves as a kind of users manual to that iconic work of feminist art that once inspired an 87-minute debate in the. House of Representatives over whether it was art or pornography. In this new book, chicago explains in exquisite detail the art work surrounding the 1,038 womens names memorialized. The dinner Party and how the art expresses the fight for womens rights from antiquity to today. Winner, choice 2008 Outstanding Academic Title, a revealing look at gender issues in contemporary sport.
Organized to mirror the exhibition, each section is divided into four chronological wings, rather than chapters, and includes a short description of the woman represented and a photograph of her plate and place setting. Surrounding the photographs are summaries of the other women whose 999 names are inscribed on the ceramic tile floor (Heritage Floor) on which the triangular table rests. Many of the plates photograph well, particularly those for Sappho and Virginia woolf, and handmade runners are spectacular. In this volume, published to coincide with her 75th birthday, judy Chicago offers a vibrant visual and textual encyclopedia of female achievement. —, publishers weekly, thirty-five years after the debut exhibition of Judy Chicago's. The dinner Party, this book highlights this monumental installation piece of feminist art. It takes a fresh look at the piece, which sought to right the omission of women artists from art history books. The artwork is described in detail in three chronological sections, beginning with prehistory and ending with the womans revolution of the 1970s. All of the women—from the the central piece to the names listed on the floor tiles—are included for their contributions.
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Restoring Women to history, written by judy Chicago, foreword by Arnold. Lehman, contribution by jane. Praise, the official publication celebrating Judy Chicagos feminist art masterpiece, the dinner Party installation at the Brooklyn Museum, and an introduction to outstanding women in history. Judy Chicagos, the dinner Party is a points defining work of feminist and contemporary art that brought womens history to light on the national stage when it was completed in 1979. Published to coincide with Chicagos 75th birthday and a nationwide series of events and exhibitions, the book features newly commissioned photography and two new essays by Chicago, along with essays by art historian Frances Borzello and historian Jane gerhard, and a foreword from museum director. The dinner Party, a monumental triangular table, and the. Heritage Floor on which the table rests, represents 1,038 women in history—39 by unique large ceramic plates and runners with another 999 names inscribed on the floors ceramic tiles. It has been seen by more than a million visitors during its international exhibition tour, and has been a principal destination at the Brooklyn Museum since its permanent housing in 2007. A perfect companion to a revolutionary artwork, the book is a must-have for both long-standing fans of Judy Chicagos oeuvre and young artists and women looking for reflections of themselves in the history of Western civilization.