Example: Rigveda.51.13,.110.4-12 Other syllable-based metres edit beyond these seven metres, ancient and medieval era sanskrit scholars developed numerous other syllable-based metres ( Akshara-chandas ). Examples include Atijagati (13x4, in 16 varieties sakkari (14x4, in 20 varieties Atisakkari (15x4, in 18 varieties Ashti (16x4, in 12 varieties Atyashti (17x4, in 17 varieties Dhriti (18x4, in 17 varieties Atidhriti (19x4, in 13 varieties Kriti (20x4, in 4 varieties) and. Morae-based metres edit see also: Mātrika metre In addition to the syllable-based metres, hindu scholars in their prosody studies, developed Gana-chandas or Gana-vritta, that is metres based on mātrās (morae, instants). 60 The metric foot in these are designed from laghu (short) morae or their equivalents. Sixteen classes of these instants-based metres are enumerated in Sanskrit prosody, each class has sixteen sub-species. Examples include Arya, udgiti, upagiti, giti and Aryagiti.
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The metrical unit in Sanskrit prosody is the verse (line, pada while in Greek prosody it is the foot. 43 Sanskrit prosody allows elasticity similar to latin Saturnian verse, uncustomary in Greek prosody. 43 The principles of both Sanskrit and Greek prosody probably go back to Proto-Indo-european times, because similar principles are found in ancient Persian, Italian, celtic, vallabhbhai and Slavonic branches of Indo-european. 44 The seven birds: major brahma Sanskrit metres edit The vedic Sanskrit prosody included both linear and non-linear systems. The field of Chandas was organized around seven major metres, state Annette wilke and Oliver moebus, called the "seven birds" or "seven mouths of Brihaspati note 5 and each had its own rhythm, movements and aesthetics. The system mapped a non-linear structure (aperiodicity) into a four verse polymorphic linear sequence. The seven major ancient Sanskrit metres are the three 8-syllable gayatri, the four 8-syllable Anustubh, the four 11-syllable Tristubh, the four 12-syllable jagati, and the mixed padas metres named Ushnih, Brihati and Pankti. With the gayatri, he measures a song; with the song a chant; with the Tristubh a recited stanza; With the stanza of two feet and four feet a hymn; with the syllable they measure the seven voices. 24 — Rigveda.164.24, Translated by tatyana. Elizarenkova 46 The major ancient metres in Sanskrit prosody 47 Meter Structure mapped Sequence varieties Usage gayatri 24 syllables; 3 verses of 8 syllables 6x4 11 Common in Vedic texts Example: Rigveda.1.1-30,.2.14 Ushnih 28 syllables; 2 verses of 8; 1 of 12 syllables.
Yamātārājabhānasa, can be read cyclically (i.e., wrapping around to the front). It is an example of a de bruijn sequence. 40 Comparison with Greek and Latin prosody plan edit sanskrit prosody shares similarities with Greek and Latin prosody. For example, in all three, rhythm is determined from the amount of time needed to pronounce a syllable, and not on stress (quantitative metre). 41 42 Each eight syllable line, for instance in the rigveda, is approximately equivalent to the Greek iambic dimeter. 28 The sacred gayatri metre of the hindus consists of three of such iambic dimeter lines, and this embedded metre alone is at the heart of about 25 of the entire rigveda. 28 The gaṇas are, however, not the same as the foot in Greek prosody.
There being eight possible patterns of light and heavy syllables in a sequence of three, pingala associated a letter, allowing the metre to be described compactly as an acronym. 36 Each of these has its Greek prosody equivalent as listed below. The ganas class) 38 Sanskrit prosody weight Symbol Style Greek equivalent na-gaṇa l-l-l u u u da da da Tribrach ma-gaṇa h-h-h — — — dum dum dum molossus ja-gaṇa l-h-l u — u da dum da Amphibrach ra-gaṇa h-l-h — u — dum. M-y-r-s-t-j-bh-n, corresponds to a standard enumeration in binary, when the three syllables in each gaṇa are read right-to-left with H0 and. A mnemonic qualitative edit The word yamātārājabhānasalagā (or yamātārājabhānasalagaṃ ) is a mnemonic for Pingala's gaṇas, developed by ancient commentators, using the vowels "a" and "ā" for light and heavy syllables respectively with the letters of his scheme. In the form without a grammatical ending, yamātārājabhānasalagā is self-descriptive, where the structure of each gaṇa is shown by its own syllable and the two following it: 39 ya-gaṇa : ya-mā-tā l-h-h ma-gaṇa : mā-tā-rā h-h-h ta-gaṇa : tā-rā-ja h-h-l ra-gaṇa : rā-ja-bhā h-l-h ja-gaṇa. The truncated version obtained by dropping the last two syllables, viz.
Note 4 better source needed for measurement by mātrā (morae laghu syllables count as one unit, and guru syllables as two units. 34 Exceptions edit The hindu prosody treatises crafted exceptions to these rules based on their study of sound, which apply in Sanskrit and Prakrit prosody. For example, the last vowel of a verse, regardless of its natural length, may be considered short or long according to the requirement of the metre. 27 Exceptions also apply to special sounds, of the type, and. 27 Gaṇa edit gaṇa ( Sanskrit, "group is the technical term for the pattern of light and heavy syllables in a sequence of three. It is used in treatises on Sanskrit prosody to describe metres, according to a method first propounded in Pingala 's chandahsutra. Pingala organizes the metres using two units: 35 l : a "light" syllable (L called laghu g : a "heavy" syllable (H called guru pingala's method described any metre as a sequence of gaṇa s, or triplets of syllables (trisyllabic feet plus the excess,.
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Syllabo-quantitative verse ( varṇavṛtta or varnavritta metres depend on syllable count, but the light-heavy patterns are fixed. Quantitative verse ( mātrāvṛtta or matravritta metres depend on duration, where each verse-line has a fixed number of morae, usually grouped in sets of four. Light and heavy syllables edit In most of Sanskrit neighbour poetry the primary determinant of a metre is the number of syllables in a unit of verse, called the pāda foot" or "quarter. Meters of the same length are distinguished by the pattern of laghu light and guru heavy syllables in the pāda. The rules distinguishing laghu and guru syllables are the same as those for non-metric prose, and these are specified in Vedic Shiksha texts that study the principles and structure of sound, such as the Pratishakhyas.
Some of the significant rules are: 30 31 Metre is a veritable ship, for those who want to go, across the vast ocean of poetry. — dandin, 7th century a syllable is laghu only if its vowel is hrasva short and followed by at most one consonant before another vowel is encountered. A syllable with an anusvara ṃ or a visarga is always guru. All other syllables are guru, either because the vowel is dīrgha long or because the hrasva vowel is followed by a consonant cluster. The hrasva vowels are the short monophthongs: 'a 'i 'u 'ṛ' and 'ḷ' All other vowels are dirgha : 'ā 'ī 'ū 'ṝ 'e 'ai 'o' and 'au'. (Note that, morphologically, the last four vowels are actually the diphthongs 'ai 'āi 'au' and 'āu as the rules of sandhi in Sanskrit make clear.) 33 Gangadasa pandita states that the last syllable in each pāda may be considered guru, but a guru at the.
25 Elements edit nomenclature edit a syllable ( Akshara, in Sanskrit prosody, is a vowel following one or more consonants, or a vowel without any. 27 The short syllable is one with short ( hrasva ) vowels, which are a i u ṛ and. The long syllable is defined as one with long ( dirgha ) vowels, which are ā ī ū ṝ e ai o and. 27 A stanza is defined in Sanskrit prosody as a group of four verses, also called as four quarters. 27 Indian prosody studies developed two types of stanzas.
Vritta stanzas are those that are crafted with a precise number syllables, while jati stanzas are those that are based on syllabic instants (morae, matra ). 27 The Vritta note 3 stanzas are further recognized in three forms, with Samavritta where the four quarters are similar in its embedded mathematical pattern, Ardhasamavritta where alternate verses keep similar syllabic structure, and Vishamavritta where all four quarters are different. 27 A regular Vritta is defined as that where the total number of syllables in each verse is less than or equal to 26 syllables, while irregulars contain more. 27 When the metre is based on morae ( matra a short syllable is counted as one mora, and a long syllable is counted as two morae. 27 Classification edit The metres found in classical Sanskrit poetry are sometimes alternatively classified into three kinds. Syllabic verse ( akṣaravṛtta or aksharavritta metres depend on the number of syllables in a verse, with relative freedom in the distribution of light and heavy syllables. This style is derived from older Vedic forms, and found in the great epics, the mahabharata and the ramayana.
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17 The ancient Chandahsutra of Pingala, also called Pingala sutras, is the oldest Sanskrit prosody text that has survived into the modern age, and it is dated to between 600 and 200 bce. Like all Sutras, the pingala text is distilled information in the form of aphorisms, and these were widely commented on through the bhashya tradition of Hinduism. Of the various commentaries, those widely studied are the three 6th century texts - jayadevacchandas, janashrayi chandovichiti and Ratnamanjusha, 20 the 10th century commentary by karnataka prosody scholar Halayudha, who also authored the grammatical Shastrakavya and kavirahasya (literally, the poet's Secret ). Other important historical commentaries include those by the 11th-century yadavaprakasha and 12th-century Bhaskaracharya, as well as jayakriti's Chandonushasana, and Chandomanjari by gangadasa. 20 There is no word without meter, nor is there any meter without words. — natya shastra 21 Major encyclopedic and arts-related Hindu texts from the 1st and 2nd millennium ce contain sections on Chandas. For example, the chapters 328 to 335 of the Agni purana, 23 chapter 15 of the natya shastra, chapter 104 of the Brihat Samhita, the Pramodajanaka section of the manasollasa contain embedded treatises on Chandas.
Hemp fibre was commonly used in the production of paper from 200 bce to the late 1800's. The hymns of Rigveda include the names of metres, which implies that the discipline of Chandas (Sanskrit prosody) emerged in the 2nd-millennium bce. 4 note 2 The Brahmanas layer of Vedic literature, composed between 900 bce and 700 bce, contains a complete expression of the Chandas. Panini's treatise on Sanskrit grammar distinguishes Chandas as the verses that compose the vedas, from Bhashya (Sanskrit: the language used for learned discourse and scholastic discussion of the vedas. The vedic Sanskrit texts employ fifteen metres, of which seven are common, and the most frequent are three (8-, 11- and 12-syllable lines). 17 writing The post-Vedic texts, such as the epics as well as other classical literature of Hinduism, deploy both linear and non-linear metres, many of which are based on syllables and others based on diligently crafted verses based on repeating numbers of morae (matra per foot). 17 About 150 treatises on Sanskrit prosody from the classical era are known, in which some 850 metres were defined and studied by the ancient and medieval Hindu scholars.
of modern Hindu culture as part. Yoga and hymns of meditation at sunrise. Extant ancient manuscripts on Chandas include pingala 's Chandah Sutra, while an example of a medieval Sanskrit prosody manuscript is Kedara Bhatta's Vrittaratnakara. Note 1 The most exhaustive compilations of Sanskrit prosody describe over 600 metres. This is a substantially larger repertoire than in any other metrical tradition. Contents Etymology edit The term Chanda ( Sanskrit : ) means "pleasing, alluring, lovely, delightful or charming and is based on the root chad which means "esteemed to please, to seem good, feel pleasant and/or something that nourishes, gratifies or is celebrated". 12 The term also refers to "any metrical part of the vedas or other composition". 12 History edit Ancient Sanskrit written on hemp-based paper.
Vedas, the scriptural canons of, hinduism, so central that some later Hindu and Buddhist texts empire refer to the vedas. 1 2, the Chandas, as developed by the vedic schools, included both linear and non-linear systems. The system was organized around seven major metres, according to Annette wilke and Oliver moebus, called the "seven birds" or "seven mouths of Brihaspati and each had its own rhythm, movements and aesthetics wherein a non-linear structure (aperiodicity) was mapped into a four verse polymorphic. Sanskrit metres include those based on a fixed number of syllables per verse, and those based on fixed number of morae per verse. 4, the, gayatri metre was structured with 3 verses of 8 syllables (6x4 the. Usnih with 2 verses of 8 and 1 of 12 syllables (7x4 the. Anustubh with 4 verses of 8 syllables (8x4 Brihati with 2 verses of 8 followed by 1 each of 12 and 8 syllables (9x4 the. Pankti with 5 verses of 8 syllables (10x4 the. Tristubh with 4 verses of 11 syllables (11x4 and the.
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For other uses, see. For the telegu poetry, see. For the typeface, see, chandas (typeface). Sanskrit prosody or, chandas refers to one of the six. Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies. 1, it is the study of poetic metres and verse in Sanskrit. 1, this field of study was central fruit to the composition of the.