Laws of hammurabi summary

Code of Hammurabi summary & History

laws of hammurabi summary

The avalon Project : Code of Hammurabi

If anyone borrows money upon a cultivated grainfield or cultivated sesame field he shall receive the grain or sesame which is grown upon that field. He shall pay back to the person making him the loan the money borrowed, with interest. In event he is unable to repay the loan or money borrowed, he shall deliver to the lender grain or sesame equal in value to the amount of the sum borrowed, with interest, in accordance with the rate of interest provided by the royal tarifif. In event anyone borrows money upon a field and fails to raise grain or sesame whereby to repay his creditors, his indebtedness is not extinguished. Anyone failing to keep his irrigating dam in repair and through his neglect and laziness a break occurs in the dam and his neighbors' lands are flooded by the overflow of the water therefrom, he shall compensate the owner of the damaged land for his. In event he is unable to repay or make good the damage incurred by his neglect, his property is to be sold and those incurring damage through his negligence are to divide his property among themselves in accordance with the extent of the several losses.

Babylonia - code of Hammurabi - crystalinks

He captain, soldier or taxpayer may sell lease to plant a trader or employee of the city his paper field, garden and house for usage. Anyone fencing in the field, garden and house of an officer, soldier or rentpayer and furnishing the fencing pales therefor shall, upon the return of the officer, soldier or rentpayer, deliver to him the field, garden or house and the fencing so erected, and the. Anyone entering into the possession of a field upon agreement and neglecting to raise grain upon that field shall be held accountable to the owner thereof for a quantity of grain commensurate with that grown in the neighboring fields, upon it being shown that. In event of failure of such a person to cultivate a field he shall be held accountable to the owner thereof for the payment to him of grain commensurate with that grown in the neighboring fields and he shall further be compelled to plow and. In event the person takes possession of a waste field for the purpose of making it arable, but fails to make the field arable, he shall be compelled to cultivate the barren field in the fourth year after his having taken possession of it, harrow. In event anyone enters into an agreement leases for a field and under that agreement a fixed compensation is paid therefor to the owner, and bad weather intervenes and destroys the growing crop, the loss shall be borne by the lessee. In event no definite compensation is fixed for the use of the field, but a proportionate share of the products is agreed upon for its use, the lessor and the lessee shall divide the grain cultivated upon that field in accordance with their agreement (. In event the lessee, because of a failure in the first year of his tenancy to receive maintenance to raise enough grain for his maintenance from the field, notwithstanding his earnest effort to so do, the owner thereof may not hold him responsible for his. Anyone leasing a field which is devastated by tempest or by a drought is not compelled to account to the owner for his share of grain during that year, the slate is dissolved in water the obligation is annulled and an accounting is. Any person leasing a tillable field to a business man and borrowing money from him, and at the same time directing the business man to cultivate the field and to plant thereon grain or sesame and to harvest grain raised thereon for his benefit, and. Provide for maintenance of the laborers who actually do the work.

If anyone delivers an officer of the king into bondage, and in so delivering the officer into bondage he bribes one in authority to assist him in the delivery and likewise appropriates to his own use property belonging to and bestowed upon the officer. Anyone purchasing a beef or small animal given by the king to an officer for the officer's rations shall forfeit the purchase price. The field, garden and house of a taxpayer cannot be sold is exempt from biography levy. Anyone purchasing a field, garden or house of an officer, soldier or taxpayer the slate shall be washed the contract therefor shall be null and void and the purchase price shall be refunded to the owner and he, the owner, shall retain his property. A captain, soldier or taxpayer cannot sell the property of his feudal lord, wife or daughter, or pledge such property for the payment of his debts. He captain, soldier or taxpayer may assign the field, garden or house which he has purchased with his own money and which he possesses in his own right for the payment of his debts. He may also convey such property to his wife or daughter.

laws of hammurabi summary

Hammurabi's Code: The Advent of Law, Prerequisites and

In event an officer of the king or review drafted man fails to make provision for the cultivation of his field, garden and the care of his house, or gives them in payment to some other person who enters into possession thereof and occupies the same. In really event he an officer of the king or a man shall lease his property for the period of one year and at the termination of said lease he returns to take possession of said property, he shall be entitled to the possession thereof. Any person purchasing the freedom of an officer or man captured while on a march with his king, shall be repaid the ransom money by the captured officer or man, in event the officer or man has property or means sufficient to repay the purchaser. In event such ransomed person has no means by which to repay the person purchasing his freedom, the municipality in which such captured person has his domicile shall compensate the purchaser of his freedom, the charge therefor to be first made upon the temple. In event of insufficient funds in the temple to make payment then the state shall defray the charge. The field, garden and house of the ransomed officer or man shall not be charged for repayment. Any officer or soldier who deserts and substitutes a mercenary in his stead and the mercenary goes in his stead, then the deserter shall be deemed guilty of felony and punished by death. If officer or a soldier injures the property of the king he shall be deemed guilty of felony and punished by death.

In event anyone shall be robbed, and the person committing the robbery shall escape, the party so deprived of his property shall make claim under oath, enumerating the property of which he has been robbed, whereupon the municipality or (.) wherein said robbery was committed. In the event of the abduction of any person, the municipality or (.) in which the abduction took place shall pay to the personal representatives of the abducted person, 1 silver "mine.". Any person who shall be present at a fire occurring in the house of another, and while present at such fire appropriates any article belonging to the proprietor of the house in which the fire occurs, shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and. If an officer of the king or drafted man who has been ordered to march with the king's troops, fails so to do and procures a mercenary or substitute who performs the duty incumbent upon such officer, or drafted man and the officer or drafted. If an officer or drafted man is captured during a reverse of the king, and during his imprisonment his property is delivered into the hands of some other person, he shall upon his release and return to his home be reinstated in the possession. In event of the capture of an officer of the king or drafted man upon a defeat suffered by his king, the officer's son shall take possession of his property and that son shall be deemed the proper person to exercise the control and possession. In event his son the son of an officer or drafted man by reason of his infancy is incapable of taking possession of his father's property, the son's mother shall be given the field and garden of the father and shall be charged with the.

Canadian Gun Laws - canadian Law Site

laws of hammurabi summary

Ten Commandments - wikipedia

Anyone adjudged to be guilty of kidnapping shall be put to death. Anyone who shall abduct a slave of the court, or a female slave of the court, or the male or female slave of a freedman, shall be taken beyond the city gate and put to death. Anyone harboring a runaway slave, either male or female, of the court, or of a freedman, and failing to produce him or her on the public demand of the major domo of the court, or the house of a freedman, upon conviction thereof shall. Anyone capturing a male or female slave, and returning said male or female slave to his or her master, shall be compensated by the master to the extent of 2 shekels of silver. In event a runaway slave shall refuse or fail to name his master, the person capturing such slave shall produce him before the court where his identity shall be examined into and upon its being ascertained the slave shall be returned to his master.

Any person capturing a runaway slave and detaining him in virtual his house and exercising ownership over him, upon conviction thereof shall be deemed guilty of felony and shall sufifer the death penalty. In event a runaway slave escapes from his captor, the captor shall make oath to the owner of the slave as to the circumstances, and thereupon shall be released from any charge by reason of the escape. Anyone seeking to burglarize a house, by breaking into it, shall be deemed guilty of felony and shall suffer the death penalty. The execution shall take place at the point of the breach in the house and he shall be there interred. Any person convicted of a robbery shall be put to death.

Any judge conducting a trial and rendering a written decision therein shall receive 12 fold the punishment administered by reason of his decision, if the decision is subsequently proved to be erroneous. Any person convicted of the offence of selling property stolen either from the city or the temple shall be put to death and the person who receives the stolen goods from such offender shall likewise be put to death. Any person purchasing silver, gold or a slave, either male or female, a beef or an ass or any other personal property from another person or from the slave of another person, without witnesses to the transaction or agreement, shall be adjudged to. Any person who without right sells a beef, a sheep, an ass or swine or other personal property, if it be the property of the temple or of the city, shall make restitution thereof 30 fold, if it be the property of a freedman,. If anyone has lost an article of personal property and discovers it in the possession of some other person and that person excuses his possession by the statement that still another person sold it to him in the presence of witnesses and that he has.


The owner shall likewise produce witnesses to substantiate his ownership and all the witnesses shall proceed before a judge and all the witnesses being duly put upon their oaths, shall testify to the facts before the judge. In event the owner proves his property the seller of the article shall be deemed to be a thief and shall suffer the death penalty. The purchaser shall make restitution of the property to the owner and shall receive back from the seller the purchase price. In event of a failure on the part of the purchaser, vendor and the witnesses before whom he alleges he consummated the transaction to appear in the case, and the owner does produce witnesses to establish his ownership in said property, the purchaser, in failing. The property shall be restored to the owner. In event of a failure, however, on the part of the claimant of the lost property to produce at the hearing competent witnesses to establish his ownership, he shall be deemed guilty of having slandered the purchaser and shall suffer the death penalty. In event the vendor of property which he has sold without right, shall die prior to a hearing upon the claim of the owner of the property, then the vendee shall receive from the estate of the vendor 5 fold the purchase price of the. In event of inability to produce witnesses in such a case at the first hearing thereon, the judge shall continue the trial of the cause for a period not to exceed 6 months. In event of failure of either party to produce witnesses for their respective claims within that period, the one failing so to do shall be deemed guilty and shall receive such punishment as is herein-before provided for in such cases.

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When Marduk sent me to rule mankind, to impart judicial protection to the country, it was that I might establish right, justice and business happiness among the people. Hammurabi's code of laws. Any person convicted of preferring charges against another person which he cannot substantiate shall be resume put to death. In event anyone prefers charges against another person and the one against whom the charge is brought leaps into a body of water and is thereby drowned, that person who preferred the charge shall thereupon take possession of the property of the one so drowned. But if the person against whom the charge is preferred is not drowned, the person who made the charge shall be put to death and the one accused shall take possession of the property of his accuser. Any person preferring a charge of malfeasance against a juror sitting in the case at bar, which charge he is unable to substantiate, and the hearing being one at the conclusion of which the death penalty may be adjudged, the person so preferring such charge. Any person attempting to suborn a juror by a bribe of grain or gold shall be deemed to be guilty of felony and shall receive such punishment as might be adjudged proper to inflict upon a person guilty of the offence for which such trial.

laws of hammurabi summary

Granting this, a further comparison between the two codes reveals in the latter, a higher and what is and may be claimed to portnov be, a divine ordering for the higher and spiritual condition of man. That Moses was familiar with the laws of Hammurabi and doubtless had studied them cannot be doubted by anyone conversant with the literary and commercial intercourse existing between Egypt and Babylonia. The comparison of the two codes will form the subject of a future article in Records of the past. Hammurabi's introduction to his code of laws. When Anu the sublime, the king of the Annunaki and Bêl, the lord of heaven and earth, who fixed the destiny of the country, had committed the whole of mankind to marduk, the son of ea, the god of right, when they made him great. To obtain riches and superabundance, bringing about everything possible for Nippur and Durilu, the exalted protection of ekur; who had restored Eridu, purified the cult of e-apsu, who fought against the four regions of the world, made the great name of Babel, brightened the heart. E-me-te-ur-sag doubled the great sanctuaries Nana; manager of the temple of Harsag-kalama, the grave of the enemies, whose help gains the victory; who enlarged the city of Cutha; who made splendid everything in E-shid-lam; the black steer who strikes down the enemies, the favorite.

The jurist of to-day will recognize in it most of the fundamental principles on which our social legislation is based. To the biblical student the code of Hammurabi suggests at once a comparison with the laws of Moses, which were written about 700 years later. But a comparative study of the two codes can only be made by one conversant with the conditions under which Moses promulgated his laws for the government of the hebrew state and church. It has already been charged that Moses copied from the older code. It must be remembered that in every age and condition of society the great fundamental principles of justice have been and must remain the same. Therefore when we find these principles of justice existing in both the laws of Hammurabi and Moses, we recognize in them the eternal precepts of right and wrong in human society.

When he left Egypt in 1888 it was for the purpose of recovering from the ruins of Susa these monuments. He had not been long at work in Susa before he found the stele of Narâm-Sin. C., which showed a high state of art in the tigro-euphrates valley nearly 6,000 years ago. This discovery was rapidly followed by others. The literature most important of which is the stele of Hammurabi, upon which was engraved his code of laws,. Two translations of this code have been made, one into French by Scheil, the assyriologist of the French Expedition to persia, of which. De morgan is the director, and the other into german. The following translation is from the latter.

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English-Russian dictionary of general lexicon. More meanings of this word and English-Russian, russian-English translations for hammurabi in dictionaries. Records, of, the, past, vol. March, 1903, the laws of hammurabi, king of babylonia. Editorial introduction, tHE ruins of Susa now being excavated by the distinguished explorer. De morgan have already yielded important results. He was led to resume undertake the excavation of ancient Susa from inscriptions found in the ruins of Babylon, from which he learned that many of the most important monuments of the babylonian kings had been carried, as trophies of war by the Elamite kings,.


laws of hammurabi summary
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4 Comment

  1. Hammurabi at the top (standing) and. The code of, hammurabi contained 282 laws, written by scribes on 12 tablets. Unlike earlier laws, it was written in akkadian, the daily language. Laws of justice which Hammurabi, the wise king, established.

  2. Hammurabi 's code was one of the first written codes of law in recorded history. These laws were written on a stone tablet, or stele, standing over six. This is called the code of, hammurabi, and we still have copies of it: there is a picture of it here, showing.

  3. More artwork from Mesopotamia. The, hammurabi code of laws, a collection of 282 rules, established standards for commercial interactions and set fines and punishments to meet the. Therefore when we find these principles of justice existing in both the laws of, hammurabi and Moses, we recognize in them the eternal precepts.

  4. Hammurabi "The Oldest Code of, laws in the world (Dodo Press. Of, hammurabi — code of 282 laws established by king, hammurabi of, babylonia during the 18th century. Law, code of, hammurabi 1780 bc, assyrian. Possibly older than the Stele.

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