Kirov had been viewed as a possible successor or even alternative to Stalin and Stalin is assumed to have sanctioned his removal himself. Post-revolution, although Stalins role during 1917 was important, it was very much that of a supporting role. Trotsky scathingly called Stalin the man who missed the revolution. Stalin devoted much energy rewriting history to exaggerate his role and diminish that of Trotsky. October, directed by sergei eisenstein, depicting the events of the October revolution, rightly placed Lenin and Trotsky centre stage. But Stalin ordered Eisenstein to re-edit the film and portray trotskys role as minimal and cowardly, and to re-emphasise his own role.
SparkNotes: Vladimir Lenin: Summary
The other man Lenin had in mind as his successor was Stalins great rival Trotsky. Together with Trotsky, lenin was planning to use the jewelry party congress in April 1923 as his opportunity to have stalin removed. But in March, lenin suffered a stroke, his third, which confined him to home and effectively ended his political career. Absolute power, on, lenin died. Following his death, two leading Bolsheviks, lev kamenev and Grigory zinoviev, sided with Stalin, from whom they felt monster they had nothing to fear, and helped suppress Lenins memorandum and sideline Trotsky, eventually forcing his removal from the central Committee, the party and eventually the country. But if Kamenev and Zinoviev thought they could tame the georgian beast they were wrong. Nikolai bukharin to have them removed from the party before turning on bukharin as well. Between 19 Kamenev, zinoviev and bukharin were all put on show trial accused of ridiculous charges, sentenced and executed. Among the confessions wrung out of them, was that they had been responsible for organising the assassination, in December 1934,. Sergei kirov, stalins man in, leningrad.
During the russian civil War, Stalin successfully and brutally defended the city of Tsaritsyn (renamed. Stalingrad in 1925, and now called Volgograd). Leon Trotsky, militarily his superior, over Trotskys policy of using the expertise of former officers from the Tsars army. Stalin had those under Trotskys command shot. Following the, october revolution of 1917, Stalins influence increased. Lenin delegated numerous tasks to his eager protégé culminating in April 1922 with Stalins appointment as General Secretary of the communist Party. But Lenin began to regret his decision and Stalins speedy rise through the party hierarchy believing Stalin to lack the necessary tact and skill for such a post. In December 1922, lab lenin penned a memorandum, his. Testament, suggesting Stalins removal from power.
Following the split of the russian Social Democratic Labour Party into two factions bolshevik and Menshevik, stalin, an admirer of the writings. Vladimir Lenin, allied himself to the bolshevik cause. His work at undermining the mensheviks within georgia brought him to the attention of Lenin, and he first met the bolshevik leader on t a bolshevik conference in Tampere, finland. Stalin, called the wonderful georgian by lenin, was one of the only revolutionary leaders with a genuinely working class background. With the outbreak of the, first World War in 1914, Stalin was conscripted to join the russian army but managed to evade duty because of his damaged left arm. February revolution and the removal of the Tsar, nicholas ii, stalin was still in exile, only returning to petrograd the following month wearing the suit he had worn when he was arrested in 1913. He took over the editorship of the bolshevik newspaper, Pravda, or Truth, and advocated accommodation with the new Provisional government for which he was later criticized by lenin. Revolution, following the, july days demonstration, Stalin helped Lenin escape first to the forests outside petrograd, then to finland, advising Lenin to shave off his trademark beard.
Causes of the russian
At the age of seven, Stalin contracted smallpox. Although he survived it left his face pockmarked, something that he was always self-conscious about. A childhood accident left his left arm shorter than his right and an accident involving a horse-drawn carriage hospitalized the young Stalin for months. Stalins father, a cobbler, became alcoholic and increasingly abusive towards both his wife and son. Brought up speaking georgian, Stalin only learnt to speak russian when aged about nine but he never lost his strong georgian accent. His mother, a deeply religious woman, enrolled her son into a church school. He graduated to the tiflis Theological Seminary where, instead of reading his set theological texts, he secretly read the works.
In 1898, Stalin joined the russian Social Democratic Labour Party and the following year was expelled from the seminary for trying to convert his classmates to marxism, although his mother claimed he left due to ill-health. For a while he worked as a clerk at the tiflis Meteorological Observatory while becoming involved in organising strikes, writing articles for socialist newspapers and making revolutionary speeches. During this time he adopted the revolutionary name of Koba. Koba, in 1901 Stalin avoided arrest and fled to the georgian coastal town of Batumi where he worked at an oil refinery. There, in April 1902, Stalin was arrested after organizing a strike at the refinery. After spending 18 months in prison he was deported to siberia. Between 19, he was arrested six times by the Tsars secret durga police, the okhrana.
Do not sign any paper or constitution, advised his wife, or any other such horror. But realising he had no alternative, nicholas ii announced his abdication in favour of his sickly son, Alexei. But on advice of his doctors, the tsar nominated instead his brother, michael. Michael however, resentful that he wasnt asked, refused to accept the position but took it upon himself to sign the necessary proclamation transferring power to the will of the people and the Provisional government. . Thus, after 304 years, the romanov dynasty had come to an abrupt end.
Few mourned its passing. Nicholas, his wife and family, and immediate members of his entourage were initially detained at Tsarskoye selo, a town 15 miles south of Petrograd. They were soon transferred to tobolsk in Western Siberia then, in April 1918, taken to yekaterinburg in the Urals. It was here, on the orders of the bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin (pictured during the night of 16 the family was shot dead. (Nicholas brother, the Grand duke michael, was later arrested by the bolsheviks, detained, then murdered on ). Rupert Colley, learn more about Lenin and the russian revolution. The russian revolution: History In An hour, published by harper Press and available in various digital formats and as downloadable audio. See also, bloody sunday 1905, grigori rasputin, a summary of, nicholas ii and a summary of the. His parents had had three sons, all of whom died during infancy.
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Any procrastination literature is tantamount to resume death. Nicholas wrote in his diary, this fat Rodzianko has written me lots of nonsense, to which I shall not even deign to reply. (Rodzianko was large, once introducing himself to the tsars son, the tsarevich Alexei, as the fattest man in all Russia.) Nicholas did, however, do as he warned on 12 March, he dissolved the duma. Abdication of the tsar, on 11 March, with the situation getting increasingly tense, liberal members of the now former Duma sided with the petrograd soviet and formed a provisional government. Its first task was to demand the abdication of the tsar. Finally, on, the tsar was on his way back to the capital, but his train had been held up at the town of Pskov. His situation was hopeless he had lost the support of the people and the loyalty of his military. Representatives of the army and the new government came to meet him.
It was whole-scale mutiny against the tsar. Workers established workers councils, or soviets, determined to bring an end to the tsars autocracy. Other towns followed the capitals lead; army units mutinied, workers downed manali tools; chaos ruled; the tsars grip on power seemed increasingly tenuous by the day. The duma urged him to face the situation and respond to the demonstrators demands; even his younger brother, the Grand duke michael Alexandrovich, warned him of the folly of inaction. Nicholas responded by warning that if the duma insisted on continuing these quarrelsome debates, he would dissolve the duma. On 11 March, the Chairman of the duma, mikhail Rodzianko, sent the tsar a desperate telegram, The situation is serious. Measures must be taken at once; tomorrow will be too late. The capital is in a state of anarchy; troops of the petrograd garrison cannot be relied upon. The government is powerless to stop the disorder General discontent is growing your majesty, do not delay.
spread rapidly and within a day the whole city had been brought to a standstill by strike. Spontaneous and leaderless, the revolution had started. Crowds gathered bearing banners that read, down with the tsar! Down with the war! Down with the german woman! Cossacks sent to quell the revolt, if necessary by force, merely sympathised. 500 miles away in the belarus town of Moghilev the tsar, refusing to leave the front and underestimating the extent or seriousness of the unrest, ordered in the troops. The petrograd garrison however refused to open fire against the demonstrators, especially when so many were women, electing instead to join their ranks.
They found her aloof and, as a german, doubted her loyalty and resented her relationship with her soothsayer mystic, Grigory rasputin. War, with the outbreak of nashville the, first World War in August 1914, russias economy buckled wages doubled but prices trebled; inflation soared, taxes rose, workers went hungry. Strikes ravaged the country, each one swiftly dealt with by the tsars secret police, the okhrana. In the countryside, peasants suffered as their means of work were swiped from under their feet their horses requisitioned for war and their sons conscripted many were never to come back. The duma proposed political reform and the formation of a government that would enjoy public confidence but the tsar, again protective of his autocracy, blocked such proposals, and sacked all those who had instigated. The soldier on the front found himself insufficiently equipped, undertrained and poorly led to face the efficiency of the germans. On (22 February, old Style workers at the massive putilov industrial plant in Petrograd came out on strike.
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(Up until January 1918, russia used the degenerative Old Styled Julian Calendar that was 13 days behind our Gregorian calendar, hence the revolution of 8 March is referred to as the february revolution.). Bloody sunday, twelve years earlier, the russian revolution of 1905, triggered by the events. Bloody sunday in St Petersburg, heralded the beginning of the end for the russian tsar, nicholas. Strikes and insurrection crippled the country eventually forcing Nicholas to introduce his October Manifesto: The disturbances and unrest in St Petersburg, moscow and in many other parts of our Empire have filled our heart with great and profound sorrow Fundamental civil freedoms will be granted. It was, in effect, an end of the tsars autocracy and the beginning of a constitutional monarchy. Its promise of civil liberties (freedom of speech, press and assembly a broad franchise, and a legislative and elected body (the duma, the national parliament) was, in itself, revolutionary. But, unable to diminish his autocratic rule, nicholas soon clipped the wings of this new parliament, dissolving it a number of times and reducing its authority. Since the revolution of 1905 and particularly the events of Bloody sunday, nicholas ii had become a reviled figure, overly influenced, it seemed, by his wife, the Empress Alexandra. The russian people never took to the Empress, granddaughter of Britains queen Victoria.