Rural development essay pdf

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This problem is caused by the policy oriented popularity of scp and rat that is likely due in no small part to their simplistic and easily comprehendible, compelling, yet ultimately illogical weird focus upon describing the data of crime in ever more complex ways. Yet, as this essay reveals, this notion of opportunity is in fact the very data that a true testable theory of causation could explain. My concern with the need to fully understand the criminological notion of opportunity and to examine claims that opportunity is a cause of crime stems from the fact that many key academic proponents of the situational Crime Prevention (SCP)  approach, and routine Activities Theory (RAT). My identification of logical problems with the rat notion of opportunity caused me to conclude that it is not a scientific explanation for causality, but is instead a mere truism. This issue is addressed in depth in Essays no 1 and No2 (below on this page. The essential argument made so far on this page of Dysology. Org is that the rat notion of crime opportunity - described as an 'opportunity theory' by its own author, and by the originator of scp, ronald  Clarke (e.g.

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please note that an updated version of this essay is published on the best Thinking website: click here, one of the major criticisms of Crime Opportunity Theory, particularly its rat and Situational Crime Prevention elements (e.g. Haywood 2007 is that it takes offender motivation and wider cultural issues for granted. Pcp, however, takes motive into account and sees it as central to opportunity as a contingent process. Therefore, pcp provides a potential means to examine, explain anthology and better understand crime opportunities in a way that might allow critical criminologists, 'administrative criminologists' and 'crime scientists' to work toward a unified opportunity theory of crime causation and reduction. (1995) like taking Candy: Why does Repeat Victimization Occur? British journal of Criminology. Laycock, g (2001) Research for Police: Who needs It? Us department of Justice. us department of Justice (2012) Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps: Know that Opportunity makes the Thief (2012 Office of Community Oriented Policing Services. Cops Programme, centre for Problem Oriented Policing. StepNum9, this essay seeks to get to grips with what I see to be the barrier to crime reduction knowledge progression that has been thrown up by two criminology theories/approaches: Situational Crime Prevention (SCP) and routine Activities Theory (RAT).

I suggest a way forward for policing and general crime reduction and theory in two essays on my website (1) The Switching point and (2) The perception Contingency Process here On Opportunity and Crime. In a follw up email that day i wrote: I guess the bone of contention is this: you and * and * might have always considered ratortunity to be contingent ( re our emails last week i sent you a couple of publications where you. And if so where have they written that? Because i cant find. And (2) more importantly how has the ratortunity myth (identified by the scourge of Sutton ) been swallowed by others who have clearly not considered it to be subject to contingency and perception? . And how, if at all, has that impacted on policymaking and teaching? This second point is something i am currently writing up which words is one reason why i was keen to make sure i was not being unjust (or just plain wrong) with regard to you * and.

rural development essay pdf

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Hence my criticism of their failure to healthy comprehend what science means by causality. What we need to know is why do targets that were once hard enough then become vulnerable? This question turns us back to offender motivation. It also focuses our attention on risk and offender capabilities and their willingness to learn new skills. Why, for example might lead be safe on a roof for 40 years (when lead has always had a good scrap value in that period) and then suddenly become the hottest stolen product. Why are thieves electrocuting themselves trying to steal copper cable (which has always had a good scrap metal value) that was once protected sufficiently by risk of electrocution? The answer of course is the increased demand and extra cash now for scrap metal due to an increased demand from China. Google copper theft electrocution you will see this is far from a rare event both in the usa and across Europe. So what degree of security are we going to have to impose on our entre way of life and infrastructure if we merely follow our instincts and beliefs and try to lock and nail everything down to the point that our way of life.

The romans invented padlocks. Locks, guards, alarms etc. Have been around since the dawn of civilisation - perhaps earlier. So what does ratortunity give us that we don't already know? Perhaps it gives us the right to believe that our beliefs are enough. This is of course a way of thinking that should have gone out with the Great Enlightenment that enabled science to inform knowledge. What got me looking at this issue is that Crime Opportunity theorists have now abandoned the social sciences and have re-badged themselves as Crime Scientists. I argue that they had better know what science is if they are going to do that.

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rural development essay pdf

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They then use the rat triangle essay to say that these changes in society represent an opportunity that is a cause of crime. So they do think they explain why crime occurs. In sum, the fact that the rat triangle cannot exist in advance of the crime being completed means they are wrong. What they need to develop is a theory of relative vulnerability that is testable and refutable. Anything else is pseudoscience. Rat is on the face of it a simple, initially plausible and compelling notion to latch onto - i can see why police services like.

But the very core of my argument here is that you have to move beyond simply believing in something toward looking for veracious evidence. The only way to do that is by conducting proper research to test proper hypothesis in order to seek to build proper theories. To date the standard of research in this endeavour within the field of criminology has been dreadful. ( Just by way of example, check out how one of my undergraduate students found massive holes in the most highly publicised study of target hardening and crime reduction: we should not forget that rat theorists never invented security (target hardening etc). Its not a new idea. People were building hill forts in Stone Age times.

They accept that but choose to focus on what they call 'proximal' (more immediate and 'environmental' factors). Their goal is to try to make a difference in terms of crime reduction in the here and now - rather than some utopian future. That is fair enough. But the problem with ratortunity, is that offender capabilities (relative to guardianship) cannot be known in advance of each attempt. Crime Opportunity Theory (rat, scp and Crime Science) is also based on the premise that Rational Choice Theory fits offender decision making so that they weigh up risks versus rewards in deciding whether or not to commit a crime. The problem is that this Rational Choice Theory premise does not square with the fixed in advance ratortunity notion of the crime triangle that is used to represent an 'opportunity' and a 'cause of crime, which to reapeat the point already made -they argue.

The rational Choice Theory issue is dealt with by Crime Opportunity theorists saying, for example, that even where rationality is limited by such things as offending while suffering withdrawal symptoms or when intoxicated or when angry that (mental illness aside) rationality is bounded rationality. So what's rational according to Crime Opportunity theorists? It appears to be  whatever they choose to decide to call rational because they see almost all offenders as rational to some degree. This is, of course, a separate criticism to my new criticism that ratortunity cannot be cause of crime. Crime Opportunity theorist will happily admit that their theory is not so suitable for crimes of gratuitous violence. They promote it instead as the best theory for explaining high volume crimes such as theft and fraud. Hence felson's popular book is entitled: "Crime and everyday life.". Routine Activity theory seeks to explain why crime occurs by explaining how changes in society bring victims and offenders together. A favourite example is that changes in society led to more women going out to work leaving more cars on the street as potential crime targets and more houses lacking capable guardianship containing more consumer durables worth stealing.

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Their relegation of motivation to the background of 'causality' is a long standing criticism of the theory. But Crime Opportunity theorists have always happily shrugged and lived with that. In more recent years both Felson and Clark have cited my work on stolen goods and the market Reduction Approach on stolen goods markets and begun to consider opportunities for dealing in stolen goods and how demand and supply factors are important in terms. So this criticism is perhaps not quite as fair as it once was. Perhaps a major problem we literature are going to have in convincing policy makers and policing services that the simple and compelling notion of ratortunity is actually complete claptrap is due to the way that the rat triangle includes in one of its three elements 'capable/motivated. Here, ratortunity theorists are not saying that ratortunities make all people into offenders. They believe instead that ratortunities are 'a' cause of some people committing crimes. They accept that there are complex social/cultural/economic distal 'causes' of crime.

rural development essay pdf

I explain in my arguments that this notion of opportunity cannot possibly be a cause of crime and suggest what my own proposed rational hypothesis of opportunity does comprise in my essay below on what I call the perception Contingency Process (PCP). I can't imagine any situations where the ratortunity notion could be a 'cause' of crime. In makng this criticism it is important to note that those who promote ratortunity as a cause of crime do not claim it is 'the' cause of crime (because they think ratortunity is a necessary but not a sufficient condition to be 'the' cause). . Therefore Crime Opportunity Theorists claim ratortunity is 'a' cause. Perhaps if an offender was able to know the future then it would be veracious to claim ratortunity is 'a' cause of crime. But if that was the case then an offender with such never before proven abilities would be more rational in their language choices if they applied for the 1m James Randi Prize for proof of psychic ability rather than (for example) burgling a house. The reasoning here is that ratortunity is based on Felsons Classic Crime Triangle which is nothing more than a post hoc explanation by way of a description of the data - not something that represents evidence to inform a theory of causality. Many criminologists have criticised Crime Opportunity Theorists such as Felson and Clarke for the fact that they tend to take motivation as 'given'.

essays reveal, suported with lists of Harvard style references,  Felson and Clarke (1998 tilley and laycock (2002 and laycock (2003) all claim that their notion of 'opportunity' ratortunity' ) is not only a cause of crime but also that it is the most. This is something that is not only repeated in journal articles, book chapters, books and research reports - as though it is a rational and logical theory - it is also published in student textbooks. One of the scholarship problems  with Crime Opportunity Theory (which includes rat, situational Crime Prevention (SCP) and British Crime Science) is that  crime opportunity theorists have a tendency towards collecting and reciting every scrap of confirming evidence while relatively disregarding the disconfirming evidence. Theoretically,  the main ratortunity problem is that the term "opportunity" as it is currently understood within criminology is the routine Activities Theory (RAT) version (adopted by situational Crime Prevention Theory, crime as Opportunity theorists and uk crime Scientists) based on Felson's classic crime triangle. Ratortunity is not at all the dictionary understanding of opportunity (essentially a convenient conjunction of circumstances upon which a person may choose to capitalise). Ratorunty is, irrationally, the notion that the essential elements of what is necessary for a successful crime to be completed presented themselves as a certainty in advance of the offender beginning to even attempt the crime.

In this work i question the rationality of the routine Activities Theory (RAT) notion of crime opportunity and go on to disprove that it is a theory of causation. In essay this sense i am arguing that rat is as wrong as the four humours notion of human physiology and that its recommendations are equally flawed in the extreme. By way of comparison, i argue that the ill-informed notion that poor physical security and guardianship is the most important cause of crime and that more physical security and guardianship the best answer to crime is sometimes as useless and harmful and sometimes incidentally slightly beneficial. I then propose an alternative way forward for criminology to test proper hypothesis in order to build rational theories of crime causation that will inform crime reduction policymaking and policing. The main question that drove me to explore this area is one that has been troubling me for some time, but that nobody else (as far as i am aware) has identified. Namely: How can the routine Activities Theory notion of 'opportunity ( what I name ratortunity for convenience) be a cause of crime when it's not a theory of causation but an irrefutable truism and description of the data? The rat crime triangle upon which much Crime Opportunity Theory and Crime Science is founded describes the elements of a successfully completed crime in commission. But how can something that you as an offender are described as being an absolutely essential part of, but have not yet become a part of, cause you to become a part of it?

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Crime Opportunity Theory is wrong because the rat classic crime triangle that is used in the theory to represent an opportunity cannot be essay an opportunity since it does not allow for the fact that in reality opportunities are not objective entities and they are not. Moreover, to be an opportunity the conjunction of favourable factors must be perceived by a person who can then decide whether or not to seek to capitalise on the situation. Whats wrong with ratortunty? Four thousands of years, in fact since the times of the ancient Egyptians and the ancient Greeks up until the late 19th century, the notion of the four humours of the human body formed the premise upon which orthodox medicine was practiced. It was a brilliant concept that was intuitively understandable by many, and it was compellingly simple and comprehensive in that it had universal applicability to all known symptoms and diseases. It was the rationale behind blood-letting as a treatment for a whole range of physiological and psychological problems. But it was completey wrong. The essays on this page of dysology are, as the heading says: On Opportunity and crime. .

rural development essay pdf
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