This period is characterised by finely made pounamu (greenstone) weapons and ornaments, elaborately carved canoes—a tradition that was later extended to and continued in elaborately carved meeting houses called wharenui 41 —and a fierce warrior culture. They developed hillforts known as pā, practiced cannibalism, and built some of the largest war canoes ever. Around the year 1500, a group of māori migrated east to the Chatham Islands, where, by adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they developed into a people known as the moriori, 45 related to but distinct from the māori of mainland. A notable feature of Moriori culture was an emphasis on pacifism. When a party of invading North Taranaki māori arrived in 1835, few of the estimated Moriori population of 2,000 survived; they were killed outright and many were enslaved. 46 The largest battle ever fought in New zealand, the battle of Hingakaka, occurred around 178090, south of Ōhaupō on a ridge near lake ngaroto.
Maori, overview - writeWork
38 Work by helen leach shows that māori were using about 36 different biography food plants, although many required detoxification and long periods (1224 hours) of cooking. Sutton's research on early māori fertility found that first pregnancy occurred at about 20 years and the mean number of births was low, compared with other neolithic societies. The low number of births may have been due to the very low average life expectancy of 3132 years. 38 Analysis of skeletons workers at wairau bar showed signs of a hard life, with many having had broken bones that had healed. This suggests that the people ate a balanced diet and enjoyed a supportive community that had the resources to support severely injured family members. Classic period (15001642) Model of a pā (hillfort) built on a headland. Pā proliferated as competition and warfare increased among a growing population. The cooling of the climate, confirmed by a detailed tree-ring study near hokitika, shows a significant, sudden and long-lasting cooler period from 1500. This coincided with a series of massive earthquakes in the south Island Alpine fault, a major earthquake in 1460 in the wellington area, 39 tsunamis that destroyed many coastal settlements, and the extinction of the moa and other food species. These were likely factors that led to sweeping changes in the māori culture, which developed into the most well-known "Classic" period 40 that was in place at the time of European contact.
Most of the adults showed signs of dietary or infection stress. Anemia and arthritis were common. Infections such as tuberculosis (TB) may have been present, as the symptoms were present in several skeletons. On average, the adults were taller than other south Pacific people, at 175 centimetres (5.74 ft) for males and 161 cm (5.28 ft) for females. The Archaic period is remarkable for the lack of weapons and fortifications so typical of the later "Classic" māori, 35 and for its distinctive "reel necklaces". 36 From this period onward, some 32 species of birds became extinct, either through over-predation by humans and the kiore and kurī (dog) they introduced; 37 repeated burning of the grassland that changed their habitat, or climate cooling, which appears to have occurred from about. The early māori enjoyed a rich, varied diet of birds, fish, seals and shellfish. Moa writing were also an important source of meat. According to Professor Allan cooper, the people slaughtered to extinction most of the various lost species within 100 years.
It was common for people to establish small temporary camps far inland for seasonal hunting. Settlements ranged in size from 40 people (e.g., palliser bay in Wellington) to between 300 and 400 people, with 40 buildings (such as at the Shag river). The best-known and most extensively studied Archaic site is at wairau bar in the south Island. 33 34 The site is similar to eastern Polynesian nucleated villages. Radiocarbon dating shows the site was occupied from about 1288 to 1300. Due to tectonic forces, some of the wairau bar site is now underwater. Work on the wairau bar skeletons in 2010 showed that life expectancy was very short, the oldest skeleton being 39 and most people dying in their 20s.
Te ha - contemporary
26 These ancestors moved down through southeast Asia and Indonesia. 27 Atholl Anderson concluded from analysis of mtdna (female) and Y chromosome (male) that the ancestors of Polynesian women came from taiwan while those of Polynesian men came from New guinea. Subsequently it was found that 96 per cent of Polynesian mtdna has an Asian origin, as do one-third of Polynesian Y chromosomes, with the remaining two-thirds being from New guinea and nearby islands. 28 An Otago University study by Professor Matisoo-smith shows that New zealand was populated from southern Asia with the mtdna mainly m branch with some n lineage and Denisovan dna. Most Polynesians, māori included, have mtdna in the B4a1a branch, and the founding population in now known to have been in the hundreds—much larger than previously thought.
29 30 Archaic period (12801500) The earliest period of māori settlement is known as the "Archaic "Moahunter" or "Colonisation" period. The eastern Polynesian ancestors of the māori arrived in a forested land with abundant birdlife, including several now extinct moa species weighing between 20 kilograms (44 lb) and 250 kg (550 lb) each. Other species, also now extinct, included a swan, a goose and the giant haast's eagle, which preyed upon the moa. Marine mammals—seals in particular—thronged the coasts, with evidence of coastal colonies much further north than those which remain today. 31 Huge numbers of moa bones—estimated to be from between 29,000 and 90,000 novel birds—have been located at the mouth of the waitaki river, between Timaru and Oamaru on the east coast of the south Island. Further south, at the mouth of the Shag river ( waihemo evidence suggests that at least 6,000 moa were slaughtered by humans over a relatively short period of time. 32 Archaeology has shown that the Otago region was the node of māori cultural development during this time, and the majority of archaic settlements were on or within 10 km (6 mi) of the coast.
In 1947, the authorities determined that a man who was five-eighths māori had improperly voted in the general parliamentary electorate of Raglan. 19 The maori Affairs Amendment Act 1974 changed the definition, allowing individuals to self-identify as to their cultural identity. In matters involving financial benefits provided by the government to people of māori ethnicity—scholarships, for example, or waitangi Tribunal settlements—authorities generally require some documentation of ancestry or continuing cultural connection (such as acceptance by others as being of the people) but no minimum "blood" requirement. 20 iii history Origins The māori settlement of New zealand represents an end-point of a long chain of island-hopping voyages in the south Pacific. The most current reliable evidence strongly indicates that the initial settlement of New zealand occurred around 1280 ce, at the end of the medieval warm period.
Previous dating of some kiore (Polynesian rat) bones at 50150 has now been shown to have been unreliable; new samples of bone (and now also of unequivocally rat-gnawed woody seed cases) match the 1280 date of the earliest archaeological sites and the beginning of sustained. 21 māori oral history describes the arrival of ancestors from Hawaiki (the mythical homeland in tropical Polynesia in large ocean-going waka. Migration accounts vary among tribes ( iwi whose members may identify with several waka in their genealogies ( whakapapa ). In the last few decades, mitochondrial-dna (mtDNA) research has allowed an estimate to be made of the number of women in the founding population—between 50 and 100. 22 23 evidence from archaeology, linguistics, and physical anthropology indicates that the first settlers came from east Polynesia and became the māori. Language-evolution studies 24 and mtdna evidence 25 suggest that most Pacific populations originated from taiwanese aborigines around 5,200 years ago (suggesting prior migration from the Asian or Chinese mainland).
Maori, writing, nZHistory, new zealand history online
Ii māori summary people often use the term tangata whenua (literally, "people lab of the land to identify in a way that expresses their relationship with a particular area of land; a tribe may be the tangata whenua in one area, but not in another. 18 The term can also refer to the māori people as a whole in relation to new zealand ( Aotearoa ) as a whole. The maori purposes Act of 1947 required the use of the term "Māori" rather than "Native" in official usage. The department of Native affairs was renamed as the department of māori Affairs. It is now known as te puni Kōkiri, or the ministry for māori development. Before 1974, the government required documented ancestry to determine the legal definition of "a māori person". For example, bloodlines or percentage of māori ancestry was used to determine whether a person should enroll on the general electoral roll or the separate māori roll.
Contents Etymology In the māori language, the word māori means "normal "natural" or "ordinary". In legends and oral traditions, the word distinguished ordinary mortal human beings— tāngata māori —from deities and spirits ( wairua ). 10 i likewise, wai māori denotes "fresh water as opposed to salt water. There are cognate words in most Polynesian languages, 11 all deriving from Proto-polynesian *ma(a)qoli, which has the reconstructed meaning "true, real, genuine". 12 13 The spelling of "Māori" with or without the macron is inconsistent in general-interest English-language media in New zealand, 14 although some newspapers and websites have adopted the standard māori-language spelling (i.e., with macrons). 15 16 Naming and self-naming Early visitors from Europe to new zealand generally referred to the indigenous inhabitants as "New zealanders" or as "natives". 17 The māori used the term māori to describe themselves in a pan-tribal sense.
more than 140,000 māori live in Australia. The, māori language (known as te reo māori ) is spoken to some extent by about a fifth of all māori, representing 3 per cent of the total population. Māori are active in all spheres of New zealand culture and society, with independent representation in areas such as media, politics and sport. Disproportionate numbers of māori face significant economic and social obstacles, and generally have lower life expectancies and incomes compared with other New zealand ethnic groups. They suffer higher levels of crime, health problems, and educational under-achievement. A number of socioeconomic initiatives have been instigated with the aim of "closing the gap" between māori and other New zealanders. Political and economic redress for historical grievances is also ongoing ( see, treaty of waitangi claims and settlements ).
Māori people gradually adopted many aspects of Western society and culture. Initial relations between māori and Europeans were largely amicable, and with the signing of the. Treaty of waitangi in 1840, the two cultures coexisted as part of a new British colony. Rising tensions over disputed land sales led to conflict in the 1860s. Social upheaval, decades of conflict and epidemics of introduced disease took a devastating toll on the māori population, which fell dramatically. By the start of the 20th century, the māori population had begun to recover, and efforts have been made to increase their standing in wider New zealand society and achieve social justice. Traditional māori culture has thereby enjoyed a significant revival, which was further bolstered. Māori protest movement fruit that emerged in the 1960s.
Māori writing in 2017: A personal essay by novelist Kelly
Not to be confused with, maouri people, mauri people, or, moriori people. This article is about the māori people of New zealand. For the māori people of the cook islands, see. The, māori ( /maʊri/ ; māori pronunciation: maɔɾi ( listen ) 7 ) are the indigenous, polynesian people of, new zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern. Polynesia, who arrived in New zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 128 9, over several centuries in isolation, the polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, and distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early māori formed tribal groups based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced; later, a prominent warrior culture emerged. 4, the arrival of Europeans to new zealand, starting in the 17th century, brought enormous changes to the māori way of life.