The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops, and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred. Crosby 's concept of the columbian Exchange also played a central role in this process. European, muslim, indian, southeast Asian, and Chinese merchants were all involved in early modern trade and communications, particularly in the Indian Ocean region. During the early 19th century the United Kingdom was a global superpower. Modern edit According to economic historians kevin. O'rourke, leandro Prados de la Escosura, and guillaume daudin, several factors promoted globalization in the period : 42 The conclusion of the napoleonic Wars brought in an era of relative peace in Europe. Innovations in transportation technology reduced trade costs substantially. New industrial military technologies increased the power of European states and the United States, and allowed these powers to forcibly open up markets across the world and extend their empires.
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In addition to economic trade, the silk road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. 38 The movement of people, such as refugees, artists, craftsmen, missionaries, robbers, and envoys, resulted in the exchange of religions, art, languages, and new technologies. 39 Early modern edit main article: Proto-globalization " Early modern -" or "proto-globalization" covers a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between 16The concept of "proto-globalization" was first introduced by historians. Hopkins bay and Christopher bayly. The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high "modern globalization" in the late 19th century. 40 This phase of globalization was characterized by the rise of maritime european empires, in the 16th and 17th centuries, first the portuguese and Spanish Empires, and later the dutch and British Empires. In the 17th century, methodology world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India company (founded in 1600) and the dutch East India company (founded in 1602, often described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered) were established. 41 Early modern globalization is distinguished from modern globalization on the basis of expansionism, the method of managing global trade, and the level of information exchange. The period is marked by such trade arrangements as the east India company, the shift of hegemony to western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations such as the Thirty years' war, and the rise of newfound commodities—most particularly slave trade. The Triangular Trade made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the western Hemisphere.
Because it predated the Great divergence of the nineteenth century, where western Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic output, archaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by europe but also by other. 36 The german historical economist and sociologist Andre gunder Frank argues that a form of globalization began with the rise of trade links between Sumer and the Indus Valley civilization in the third millennium. This archaic globalization existed resume during the hellenistic Age, when commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spain, including Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities. Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of importing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade. Trade in ancient Greece was largely unrestricted: the state controlled only the supply of grain. 6 The silk road in the 1st century native new World crops exchanged globally : maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, rubber, cacao, tobacco Trade on the silk road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, indian subcontinent, persia, europe, and Arabia, opening. 37 Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, common goods such as salt and sugar were traded as well; and religions, syncretic philosophies, and various technologies, as well as diseases, also traveled along the silk routes.
35 With early globalization, it was difficult for states to interact with others that were not resume within a close proximity. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others' existence and thus another phase of globalization can occur. The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity. If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other. This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to work. This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization. It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today. 35 Also posited is a "multi-polar" nature to archaic globalization, which involved the active participation of non-Europeans.
34 Archaic edit main article: Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the 1600s. This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels. 35 In this schema, three main prerequisites are posited for globalization to occur. The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the east. 35 Without the spread of traditional ideas from the east, western globalization would not have emerged the way it did. The second is distance. The interactions of states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, north Africa, the middle east, and certain parts of Europe.
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James holds that this series of distinctions allows for an understanding of how, today, the most embodied forms of globalization such as the movement of refugees and migrants are increasingly restricted, while the most disembodied forms such as the circulation of financial instruments and codes. 27 The journalist Thomas. Friedman popularized the term "flat world", arguing that globalized trade, outsourcing, writing supply-chaining, and political forces had permanently changed the world, for better and worse. He asserted that the pace of globalization was quickening and that its impact on business organization and practice would continue to grow. 28 Economist takis Fotopoulos defined "economic globalization" as the opening and deregulation of commodity, capital, and labor markets that led toward present neoliberal globalization. He used "political globalization" to refer to the emergence of a transnational élite and a phasing out of the nation-state. Meanwhile, he used "cultural globalization" to reference the worldwide homogenization of culture.
Other of his usages included " ideological globalization " technological globalization and "social globalization". 29 Lechner and Boli (2012) define globalization as more people across large distances becoming connected in more and different ways. 30 Globophobia is used to refer to the fear of globalization, though it can also mean the fear of balloons. History edit main article: History of globalization see also: Timeline of international trade There are both distal and proximate causes which can be traced in the historical factors affecting globalization. Large-scale globalization began in the 19th century.
22 Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book the race to the top: The real Story of Globalization, states that globalization: is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world. 23 paul James defines globalization with a more direct and historically contextualized emphasis: Globalization is the extension of social relations across world-space, defining that world-space in terms of the historically variable ways that it has been practiced and socially understood through changing world-time. 24 Manfred Steger, professor of global studies and research leader in the Global Cities Institute at rmit university, identifies four main empirical dimensions of globalization : economic, political, cultural, and ecological. A fifth dimension—the ideological—cutting across the other four. The ideological dimension, according to Steger, is filled with a range of norms, claims, beliefs, and narratives about the phenomenon itself.
25 James and Steger stated that the concept of globalization "emerged from the intersection of four interrelated sets of ' communities of practice ' ( Wenger, 1998 academics, journalists, publishers/editors, and librarians." 9 :424 They note the term was used "in education to describe the. 9 They have also argued that four different forms of globalization can be distinguished that complement and cut across the solely empirical dimensions. 24 26 According to james, the oldest dominant form of globalization is embodied globalization, the movement of people. A second form is agency-extended globalization, the circulation of agents of different institutions, organizations, and polities, including imperial agents. Object-extended globalization, a third form, is the movement of commodities and other objects of exchange. He calls the transmission of ideas, images, knowledge, and information across world-space disembodied globalization, maintaining that it is currently the dominant form of globalization.
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16 17 due to the complexity of writing the concept, various research projects, articles, and discussions often stay focused on a single aspect of globalization. 18 Sociologists Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King define globalization as "all those processes by which the people of the world are incorporated into a single world society." 1 In The consequences of Modernity, anthony giddens writes: "Globalization can thus be defined as the intensification. Globalization can be on a continuum with the local, national and regional. At one end of the continuum lie social and economic relations and networks which are organized on a local and/or national basis; at the other end lie social and economic relations and networks which crystallize on the wider scale of regional and global interactions. Globalization can refer to those spatial-temporal processes of change which underpin a transformation in the organization of human affairs by linking together and expanding human activity across regions and continents. Without reference to such expansive spatial connections, there can be no clear or coherent formulation of this term. A satisfactory definition of globalization must capture each of these elements: extensity (stretching intensity, velocity and impact. 21 Held and his co-writers' definition of globalization in that offer same book as "transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions—assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impact—generating transcontinental or inter-regional flows" was called "probably the most widely-cited definition" in the.
10 Further, environmental challenges such as global warming, cross-boundary water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. 11 Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work organization, economics, socio-cultural resources, and the natural environment. Academic literature commonly subdivides globalization into three major areas: essay economic globalization, cultural globalization, and political globalization. 12 Contents Etymology and usage edit The term globalization derives from the word globalize, which refers to the emergence of an international network of economic systems. 13 One of the earliest known usages of the term as a noun was in a 1930 publication entitled Towards New Education, where it denoted a holistic view of human experience in education. 14 The term 'globalization' had been used in its economic sense at least as early as 1981, and in other senses since at least as early as 1944. 15 Theodore levitt is credited with popularizing the term and bringing it into the mainstream business audience in the later half of the 1980s. Since its inception, the concept of globalization has inspired competing definitions and interpretations. Its antecedents date back to the great movements of trade and empire across Asia and the Indian Ocean from the 15th century onward.
the economic resources of capital, technology, and data. The steam locomotive, steamship, jet engine, and container ships are some of the advances in the means of transport while the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the, internet and mobile phones show development in telecommunications infrastructure. All of these improvements have been major factors in globalization and have generated further interdependence of economic and cultural activities around the globe. 3 4 5 Though many scholars place the origins of globalization in modern times, others trace its history long before the european Age of Discovery and voyages to the new World, some even to the third millennium. 6 7 Large-scale globalization began in the 1820s. 8 In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the connectivity of the world's economies and cultures grew very quickly. The term globalization is recent, only establishing its current meaning in the 1970s. 9 In 2000, the International Monetary fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people, and the dissemination of knowledge.
The papers appearing in this publication were first presented at the workshop "Globalization of food systems: impacts on food security and nutrition" held at fao headquarters in Rome from. The chapters are arranged in two parts. The first contains overview chapters providing a synthesis of findings from 11 country case studies, an overview of issues related to urban food insecurity, a review of nutritional change in developing countries and some policy options to address these changes. The second section gives a detailed account of the changes in food systems and health and nutrition problems in 11 case study countries, representative of different regions throughout the world. For other uses, see, globalization (disambiguation). Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments house worldwide. Globalization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology. With increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and culture.
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Abstract, food systems are being transformed at an unprecedented rate as a result of global economic and social change. Urbanization, foreign direct investment in markets of developing countries and increasing incomes are prime facilitators for the observed changes, while social changes, such as the increased number of women in the workforce and rural to urban migration, provide added stimulus. Changes are also facilitated in concrete ways by food production based on intensive agriculture, new food processing and storage technologies, longer product bill shelf-life, the emergence of food retailers such as fast food outlets and supermarkets and the intensification of advertising and marketing of certain products. The sum of these changes has resulted in diverse foods that are available all year for those who can afford them, as well as a shift in home-prepared and home-based meals to pre-prepared or ready-to-eat meals, often consumed away from home. These food system and lifestyle changes are in turn having an impact on the health and nutritional status of people in developing countries. There is an indication of rapid increases in overweight and obesity, particularly among adults, and an increasing prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. At the same time, social inequalities are increasing, particularly in urban areas.